Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Series Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

Thinking back on it now, it is quite obvious that influences from my upstate New York childhood inspired this study of health and hygiene in China. My mother’s old medical technician’s textbooks from the 1940s introduced me to a laboratory world that held the conquest of bacteria as its greatest achievement. ...

Prologue: Sun the Perfected One’s Song of Guarding Life

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pp. xiii-xiv

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Introduction

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pp. 1-21

The goal of this book is to place meanings of health and disease at the center of Chinese experiences of modernity. It does so by focusing on the multiple manifestations across time of a single Chinese word: weisheng. Today this term is variously rendered into English as “hygiene,” “sanitary,” “health,” or “public health.” ...

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1. “Conquering the One Hundred Diseases” Weisheng before the Twentieth Century

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pp. 22-47

What associations would the term weisheng create in the mind of a Chinese scholar living in a nineteenth-century city? To understand how weisheng as “hygienic modernity” emerged in the twentieth century requires an understanding of weisheng’s textual antecedents. ...

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2. Health and Disease in Heaven’s Ford

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pp. 48-75

Pan Wei (1816–1894) spent much of his time in Tianjin pondering how he could best avoid illness and death. While filling a lowly post at the city’s imperial salt commissioner office, he studied ancient medical texts and culled their best techniques. On the first day of winter in 1858, he completed his compilation, ...

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3. Medical Encounters and Divergences

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pp. 76-103

The year 1842 was an important one in British history. That year saw the signing of the Treaty of Nanking, which ended the Opium War, opened Hong Kong, Shanghai, and other Chinese ports to British Settlement, and signaled the beginning of Great Britain’s military dominance over Asia’s largest empire, the Great Qing. ...

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4. Translating Weisheng in Treaty-Port China

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pp. 104-135

Beginning in 1880, new treatises on weisheng appeared in China’s treaty ports. A few curious Chinese readers in Tianjin would have noted their arrival. The basic content of these works was the same: Each informed the reader that chemistry dictated the proper path to health. ...

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5. Transforming Eisei in Meiji Japan

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pp. 136-164

In 1872, the Japanese government sent a thirty-four-year-old doctor named Nagayo Sensai (1838–1902) to serve as medical observer on an official embassy to the United States and Europe. Upon his return to Tokyo, he struggled to find a way to translate what he had witnessed abroad. ...

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6. Deficiency and Sovereignty: Hygienic Modernity in the Occupation of Tianjin, 1900–1902

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pp. 165-192

In the summer of 1900, thousands of peasant practitioners of martial arts began to attack foreigners and Christians in north China. Together with Qing military forces, these “Boxers” lay siege to foreign outposts in Tianjin and Beijing. In response, six Western nations, together with Russia and Japan, dispatched a massive international relief force ...

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7. Seen and Unseen: The Urban Landscape and Boundaries of Weisheng

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pp. 193-224

In the aftermath of the Boxer Uprising, hygienic modernity not only touched the body in Tianjin; it also touched the city and transformed it with its touch. Cities throughout China underwent dramatic changes in the first decades of the twentieth century. Towering defensive walls fell, trains looped in, and trams rumbled through streets. ...

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8. Weisheng and the Desire for Modernity

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pp. 225-253

In the 1930 short story “Etiquette and Hygiene” (Liyi he weisheng), the writer Liu Na’ou created a vision of modern Shanghai embodied in a sexually liberated Chinese woman, Keqing, and her sophisticated lawyer husband, Qiming. Toward the end of the story, Qiming takes a walk from the gleaming International Settlement to the Chinese city. ...

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9. Japanese Management of Germs in Tianjin

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pp. 254-284

On July 7, 1937, fighting broke out between Chinese and Japanese troops at Marco Polo Bridge outside of Beijing. By July 31, Japanese forces had occupied all of Chinese-administered Tianjin. Japanese military officers and Chinese civilians collaborated to form a new government for the city. ...

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10. Germ Warfare and Patriotic Weisheng

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pp. 285-299

In the winter of 1952, reports of American use of germ warfare in the Korean War hit the front pages of newspapers throughout the People’s Republic of China. Government sources accused “American imperialists” (Mei di) of using biological weapons against innocent civilian populations in Manchuria. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 300-306

Throughout the twentieth century, weisheng became an instrumental discourse informing the Chinese elite’s vision of a modern ideal, a vehicle through which they hoped state, society, and the individual would be transformed. As grasped by Meiji bureaucrats, late Qing reformers, and Guomindang modernizers, weisheng centered concerns of national sovereignty, ...

Glossary

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pp. 307-318

Notes

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pp. 319-364

Bibliography

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pp. 365-396

Index

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pp. 397-401

Production Notes

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pp. 419-419