Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

A major scholarly work is often long in gestation, and many friends at various stages help it along the path toward publication. This book is no exception. Portions of the original manuscript were read and carefully commented upon by Hans Beck, Craige Champion, and Boris Dreyer, as well as by the anonymous referees at the University of California Press. ...

Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xvii

Maps

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pp. xviii-xxii

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1. Political Science and Roman History

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pp. 1-11

International politics in the ancient Mediterranean world was long a multipolar anarchy—a world containing a plurality of powerful states, contending with each other for hegemony, within a situation where international law was minimal and in any case unenforceable. None of these powerful states ever achieved lasting hegemony around the shores of the great sea: ...

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2. Realist Paradigms of Interstate Behavior

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pp. 12-36

The purpose of this chapter is to set forth the basic elements in the Realist approach to interstate behavior—the core hypotheses of Realist theory. The Realist approach in analyzing interstate behavior is founded on three fundamental concepts: the prevalence of anarchy in the world of states (i.e., the lack of international law); ...

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3. The Anarchic Structure of Interstate Relationsin Classical Greece

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pp. 37-78

Ancient Greek city-states existed in a world that was essentially bereft of international law. The result was a constellation of heavily militarized and diplomatically aggressive societies among which war was common. The character of those societies no doubt contributed to the general atmosphere of interstate violence, ...

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4. The Anarchic Structure of Interstate Relationsin the Hellenistic Age

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pp. 79-117

If we now turn from the fifth century B.C. to the third century B.C. and the world of the Hellenistic states—the states with which the Roman Republic historically had to interact—we find that nothing in the character of the interstate system in the eastern Mediterranean has changed except that the scale of states, ...

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5. Terrores Multi: The Rivals of Rome for Power in Italyand the Western Mediterranean

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pp. 118-180

The governing elites of states learn about interstate relations from experience, which affects, informs, and limits their perceptions of the outside world and hence the decisions about it that they are subsequently likely to make.1 Realist theoreticians argue, in addition, that the subtle pressures upon the culture and behavior of a state ...

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6. Rome and Roman Militarism within the AnarchicInterstate System

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pp. 181-243

At the end of chapter 4 above, we saw that the Greek historian Polybius proposed an at least partly systemic explanation for the Roman decision of 200 B.C. to respond to the pleas of Greek states for Roman intervention in the East. His hypothesis is crucial to this study. ...

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7. Roman Exceptionalism and Nonexceptionalism

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pp. 244-316

The previous discussion has established that Rome was a highly militaristic state, but that it existed in a highly militarized and anarchic environment, and within that environment it was not exceptional in the intensity of its militarism. Further, the primordial fact of constant warfare in the ancient Mediterranean and indeed throughout the entire premodern world ...

Appendix to Chapter 6: Roman Commanding Generals Killed in Battle with Foreign Enemies, 340s–140s B.C.

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pp. 317-318

Bibliography

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pp. 319-342

Index

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pp. 343-369

Further Reading

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pp. 393-395