Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-11

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-17

My first thanks must go to David Perry and Gary Gallagher, who encouraged me to do this project. Since I began, their support and patience have been key to its successful completion. Other folk at the University of North Carolina Press, especially Cait Bell-Butterfield, John K. Wilson, and Ron Maner, have put a lot of work...

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Introduction: The Fighting Irish

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pp. 1-9

Irish participation in the Confederate experiment represents a complex and imperfectly understood element of the American Civil War. Much less numerous than their countrymen who took part in the Union war effort, Irish Confederates still present serious questions about what it meant to be Irish and American in the mid-nineteenth century. Those Irish who lived in the ...

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Chapter 1 Reluctant Secessionists: The Irish, Southern Politics, and the Birth of the Confederacy

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pp. 10-40

The Irish, Southern Politics, and the Birth of the Confederacy Irish immigrants were active participants in the politics of southern cities. They generally supported the Democratic Party, attracted to its rhetoric of the common man as well as its pro-immigration platform. The relationship between the Irish and southern Democrats became even closer during out-...

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Chapter 2 Irish Rebels, Southern Rebels: The Irish Join the Confederate Army

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pp. 41-72

The secession of southern states and the creation of the Confederate States of America compelled the Irish who wished to remain in those states to switch their allegiance to the new nation. Many also responded to calls to defend it, often forming their own ethnic units. About 20,000 Irishmen would serve in the Confederate armed forces. Rhetoric and images compar-...

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Chapter 3 Faugh a Ballagh! (Clear the Way!): The Irish in the Confederate Army

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pp. 73-111

Fulfilling in part the stereotype of the “Fighting Irish,” Irish soldiers earned a reputation for bravery in the Confederate army as well as one for being difficult to manage. One of their commanders observed, for example, that with the “strong hand” of good officers, they could be great soldiers.1 Unfortunately for Confederate authorities, even “strong hands” could not stop Irish ...

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Chapter 4 Hard Times: The Irish on the Home Front

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pp. 112-149

Support for Irish Confederate soldiers from home was vital both for encouraging them to stay in the army and to highlight to native white southerners that the entire Irish community was behind the Confederacy. Civilian leaders of the Irish in the South did embrace the Confederate national project and most became advocates of a “hard-war” policy. They accepted that state ...

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Chapter 5 For God, Erin, and Carolina: Irish Catholics in the Confederacy

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pp. 150-186

Although Irish religious leaders of all denominations supported the Confederacy, it was Catholic clergy and sisters who natives saw as the leaders and role models of the Irish community. Thomas Smyth from Second Presbyterian Church in Charleston, for example, was a prominent cleric and Irish immigrant, but it was his Catholic counterpart and fellow Irish immigrant ...

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Chapter 6 Another “Lost Cause”: The Irish after the Confederacy

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pp. 187-220

In the commemoration of the Confederacy aft er the Civil War, the Irish in the South rediscovered a Confederate spirit they had lost during the conflict. Aft er the surrender of the major Confederate armies in April and May 1865, all, including the most patriotic of them, accepted defeat and a return to the United States. The decision made by prominent Confederates such ...

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Conclusion: Ambiguous Confederates

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pp. 221-224

The Irish experience of the Confederacy was indeed an ambiguous one. They had been reluctant secessionists, yet rallied in large numbers to the Confederacy when war began. Those who joined the armed forces were, in general, good fighters, but also more likely to desert than native Confederates. Irish civilians supported their “boys” in the service, but most tired of ...

Appendix: Irish Surnames in Mobile, Alabama, Units

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pp. 225-228

Notes

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pp. 229-266

Selected Bibliography

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pp. 267-296

Index

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pp. 297-307