In this Book

The Triangle Fire, Protocols Of Peace
summary
America searched for an answer to "The Labor Question" during the Progressive Era in an effort to avoid the unrest and violence that flared so often in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In the ladies' garment industry, a unique experiment in industrial democracy brought together labor, management, and the public. As Richard Greenwald explains, it was an attempt to "square free market capitalism with ideals of democracy to provide a fair and just workplace." Led by Louis Brandeis, this group negotiated the "Protocols of Peace." But in the midst of this experiment, 146 mostly young, immigrant women died in the Triangle Factory Fire of 1911. As a result of the fire, a second, interrelated experiment, New York's Factory Investigating Commission (FIC)—led by Robert Wagner and Al Smith—created one of the largest reform successes of the period. The Triangle Fire, the Protocols of Peace, and Industrial Democracy in Progressive Era New York uses these linked episodes to show the increasing interdependence of labor, industry, and the state. Greenwald explains how the Protocols and the FIC best illustrate the transformation of industrial democracy and the struggle for political and economic justice.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
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  1. Frontmatter
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  1. Contents
  2. pp. vii-viii
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  1. Acknowledgments [Includes Image Plate]
  2. pp. ix-xii
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  1. Introduction: Laboring Democracy [Includes Image Plate]
  2. pp. 3-20
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  1. I. Private Protocolism: Industrial Democracy in New York's Ladies' Garment Industry
  2. pp. 23-24
  1. 1. Workers Organizing Industry: The New York City Garment Strikes of 1909 and 1910
  2. pp. 25-56
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  1. 2. The Making of Industrial Democracy in the Ladies' Garment Industry: The Creation of the Protocols of Peace
  2. pp. 57-93
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  1. 3. The Shifting Ground of Protocolism: Struggling for the Soul of Industrial Democracy [Includes Image Plate]
  2. pp. 94-125
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  1. II. Public Protocolism: The Triangle Fire and the Transformation of Industrial Democracy
  2. pp. 127-128
  1. 4. "The Burning Building at 23 Washington Place": The Triangle Fire and the Transformation of the Industrial Democracy
  2. pp. 129-153
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  1. 5. Politics: Setting the Stage for Industrial Democracy in Progressive Era New York
  2. pp. 154-169
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  1. 6. The Politics of Administrative Reform: The Factory Investigating Commission, 1911–1913
  2. pp. 170-188
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  1. 7. Industrial Democracy Meets the Welfare State in Progressive Era New York
  2. pp. 189-213
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  1. Conclusion: The Historical Legacy of Industrial Democracy: From Protocolism to the New Deal
  2. pp. 214-222
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  1. Notes
  2. pp. 223-281
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  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 283-322
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 323-332
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