Bringing Outsiders In
Transatlantic Perspectives on Immigrant Political Incorporation
Publication Year: 2009
For immigrants, politics can play a significant role in determining whether and how they assimilate. In Bringing Outsiders In, leading social scientists present individual cases and work toward a comparative synthesis of how immigrants affect-and are affected by-civic life on both sides of the Atlantic. Just as in the United States, large immigrant minority communities have been emerging across Europe. While these communities usually make up less than one-tenth of national populations, they typically have a large presence in urban areas, sometimes approaching a majority.
That immigrants can have an even greater political salience than their population might suggest has been demonstrated in recent years in places as diverse as Sweden and France. Attending to how local and national states encourage or discourage political participation, the authors assess the relative involvement of immigrants in a wide range of settings. Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf provide a context for the particular cases and comparisons and draw a set of analytic and empirical conclusions regarding incorporation.
Published by: Cornell University Press
Title Page, Copyright
This volume began as a conference at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study on April 22–23, 2005. Our first debt of gratitude is to the outstanding scholars who worked long and traveled far to that event for little but the intrinsic rewards of scholarly exchange. Old friendships were reinforced by this process and new ones...
PART I. FRAMEWORKS
1. Setting the Context
Over the last six decades, millions of immigrants have arrived in the wealthy democracies of Western Europe and North America. Despite increasing restrictions, the volume of arrivals remained high as families reunite, asylum seekers find safe havens, undocumented workers cross borders, and residents of the new accession states...
2. Modeling Immigrant PoliticalIncorporation
By definition, immigrants have always been included in some fashion or other in the states to which they permanently migrate. In some countries and at some times, immigrants have been granted or have seized a route from the political margins to the center, at least across generations. They have protested, voted, engaged in informal...
PART II. EXPLORING IMMIGRANT POLITICAL INCORPORATION
What is immigrant political incorporation? How does it differ from the political incorporation of minority groups or uninvolved native-born individuals in the majority population? Does political incorporation resemble economic or social incorporation? Does political inclusion take varied forms, follow different routes, or get...
3. Immigrants and Their Offspring in Europe as Political Subjects
Academic, political, and policy debates have offered many insights about the position of immigrants and of their offspring in Europe. As Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf (chap. 2 in this volume) have outlined, the themes raised about immigrants depend on the local, national, and international context, in particular...
4. Lost in Translation? A Critical Reappraisal of the Concept of Immigrant Political Incorporation
The return to high levels of immigration to the United States over the last forty years has generated a familiar concern for how immigrants are changing U.S. society. Sometimes this concern is motivated by a prickly nativism, a lingering anxiety about what “they” are doing to “us” and how much we might have to change to...
PART III. IMMIGRANTS’ LOCAL POLITICALOPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES
Whereas national laws govern the entry, legal status, and naturalization of immigrants to a host country, more local arenas shape their lives. The neighborhoods, cities, and regions in which immigrants live; the schools their children attend; the libraries they frequent; the police they encounter; and other civic services they use are,...
5. Swiss Citizenship: A Municipal Approach to Participation?
“The Federal Council [Swiss Government] is directly responsible to the people. The sovereign has decided. Its vote should be applied and there is nothing else to be added.” With these words, Christoph Blocher, former minister of justice, endorsed the Swiss voters’ September 2004 defeat of measures that would have widened access...
6. The New Urban Politics of Integration: A View from the Gateway Cities
Major population shifts have always affected local politics first in the United States, having an impact on national politics only after a long and winding trail. When a large number of people reach new destinations, established residents often react unfavorably to their arrival, which perturbs local politics. In time, the new entrants...
7. Political Institutions and Rainbow Coalitions: Immigrant-Minority Relations in New York and Hartford
Immigration has reshaped the demography of the metropolitan United States in the last half century. Cities, once largely a mix of blacks and whites, are now decidedly multiracial, with rapidly increasing numbers of immigrants from Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. There are countless questions about how these demographic...
PART IV. IMMIGRANTS’ NATIONAL POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES
We turn next to the national level. The interest groups, electoral system, political party incentives, statutory and constitutional structures, and cultural traditions of a country all emerge as critical infl uences on immigrants’ political incorporation. Both immigrants and native-born political actors have an array of choices to make...
8. Successes and Failures of Muslim Integration in France and Germany
If we compare immigrant integration in Europe and the United States, we immediately hit a paradox. In Europe, religion and how to deal with Muslim immigrants are indisputably the major topics. By contrast, in the United States the main problem seems to be language and how to deal with Hispanic immigrants (Zolberg...
9. A Multicultural Paradise? The Cultural Factor in Dutch Integration Policy
Western European countries heatedly debate the issue of how much and what kind of cultural differentiation is to be allowed in the public domain. Many have witnessed the rise of right-wing populist parties that see migrants as a threat to social cohesion and national identity (Van Kersbergen and Krouwel 2003; Michael...
10. Anti-Immigrant Politics in Europe: The Radical Right, Xenophobic Tendencies, and Their Political Environment
Today’s European societies are characterized by socially and economically marginal immigrant communities. Political elites — largely divided on this issue — respond mainly when the media report or public outcries push them, rarely in immigrants’ favor. More established parties compete with old and new radical right parties,...
11. Immigrants’ Incorporation inthe United States after 9/11: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back
The last decade has been momentous for immigrants to the United States and for the course of their integration into U.S. society. If we look for a smooth trajectory, we will be sorely disappointed. Instead, immigrants’ path to integration has been characterized by forward progress interrupted by setbacks and new obstacles....
12. Building through Exclusion: Anti-Immigrant Politics in the United States
In January 2004, President George W. Bush called for comprehensive immigration reform in launching his reelection campaign. Immigration became a high profi le issue in U.S. national politics in late 2005, received unprecedented attention in spring 2006, and remained significant through parts of the 2008 presidential election...
PART V. IMMIGRANTS’ POLITICAL OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURES BEYOND THE STATE
In previous chapters in this volume, Marco Martiniello (chap. 3) and Lorraine Minnite (chap. 4) call for greater attention to transnationalism in understanding immigrants’ political behavior; the chapters in Part V respond. In chapter 13, Eva Østergaard-Nielsen takes a bottom-up approach to this issue, looking at how Turkish...
13. The End of Closet Political Transnationalism? The Role of Homeland Politics in the Political Incorporation of Turks and Kurds in Europe
In the Danish local elections in the early 1990s, a Turkish-origin candidate was listed for the Social Democratic Party in one of the Copenhagen constituencies. He was running in an area with a high concentration of migrants, especially Turkishorigin migrants, who had gained the right to vote in local elections more than a decade...
14. Organizing Immigration Interests in the European Union: Constraints and Opportunities for Supranational Migration Regulation and Integration
Assuming that immigrant incorporation is affected by host-country reception and policy environments, attitudinal and institutional norms reveal how Europeans reconcile their diverse interests around migration. Moreover, they provide key insights about how democratic societies may accommodate immigrant groups...
PART VI. IMMIGRANTS’ POLITICAL RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES
Individual migrants and immigrant groups are neither passive recipients of native-born politicians’ actions nor helpless victims of extant political institutions and practices. Earlier chapters in Bringing Outsiders In have already pointed to immigrant agency. At a theoretical level, Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf...
15. The State and Ethno-Religious Mobilization in Britain
The migration into western democratic nation-states of the last few decades has seen an assertive politics in several countries on the part of the migrants and second-generation immigrants, explored here with particular reference to Britain. Of course, migrants and members of minorities do not have to participate in politics...
16. Differences in the City: Parallel Worlds, Migration, and Inclusion of Differences in the Urban Space
The city attracts diversity: different ways of life, different trajectories, and different socioeconomic positions. Its anonymity promises liberty and attracts people who are searching for new opportunities. The city simultaneously combines the promise of indifference toward diversity (as outlined by Simmel 2001 ) and of...
17. In Pursuit of Inclusion: Citizenship Acquisition among Asian Immigrants
For immigrants in the United States, the acquisition of U.S. citizenship is a critical prerequisite for political inclusion because naturalized citizens enjoy many of the same rights and privileges afforded to individuals born on U.S. soil, including the right to vote and hold elective offi ce (with the exception of the presidency). For much...
18. Entering the Precincts of Power: Do National Differences Matter for Immigrant Minority Political Representation?
The 2005 riots in the French suburbs brought to the fore in a dramatic way our need to better understand how immigrants and their descendants are integrated into European societies and how European patterns compare with those that have developed in the United States. The riots also made clear the need to revisit comparative...
PART VII. THE ROAD AHEAD
By this point, Bringing Outsiders In has viewed immigrant political incorporation through various lenses—in local arenas, within and across countries, in supranational organizations, and across national boundaries. The authors have examined particular groups, distinct characteristics of groups and individuals, and an array of...
19. Understanding Immigrant Political Incorporation through Comparison
About 200 million individuals, approximately 3 percent of the world population, live outside the country where they were born. Over 100 million migrants live in the more developed regions of the world, including 9 million in Northern Europe, 22 million in Western Europe, 6 million in Canada, and 38 million in the United...
Page Count: 392
Publication Year: 2009
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