Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-1

Title Page, About the Series, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 2-5

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-6

List of Maps

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vi-7

List of Figures

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-8

List of Plates

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. viii-9

read more

Preface

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xi

During Holy Week in 1964, some friends and I ventured into the backcountry of eastern Sonora south of Douglas, Arizona, heading, we hoped, for the Sierra Madre. The highway then was a rough, dusty, unpaved road infrequently traveled, that wound for one hundred kilometers through interminable mountainous wilds before finally dipping into the valley of the Río Moctezuma. As we passed...

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-xiv

Numerous individuals helped make this book possible. University of Arizona Library Special Collections personnel provided considerable assistance with locating and identifying documents. Michael Brisque, Dale Brenneman, and Diana Hadley of Documentary Relations of the Southwest in the Arizona State Museum...

read more

1. Sonora: The Opatería

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-17

The Ópatas are gone. After four decades of searching throughout the backcountry of Sonora, I have found only a few persons in Mexico who profess to be Ópata. This seems odd, since four hundred years ago the loosely related peoples now referred to as Ópatas were the largest indigenous group in what is now Sonora,...

read more

2. Where They Were: The Land and the Limits of Opatan Unity [Includes Image Plates]

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 19-44

In the 1530s, Spanish conquerors in search of slaves and precious metals made their way west and north from Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) to the coast of what is now Nayarit. Reaching the Pacific, they established a shipping point at San Blas, the last natural harbor heading north until Guaymas. They veered northwestward...

read more

3. Opatans as They Were When Spaniards Arrived

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 45-79

The Opatans were hardly a gentle people innocent of conflict prior to the arrival of Europeans. They were intertwined in vigorous trade with other peoples in all directions. Their numbers, upwards of sixty thousand, required food in such quantities that skirmishes among groups competing for the same land...

read more

4. The Jesuits in the Opatería

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 81-149

The arrival of the Jesuits, priests of the black robes, in Northwest Mexico was part of the Crown’s plan to pacify the region and open it up to settlement and economic exploitation. The missions were intended to be temporary institutions, calculated to pacify natives, Christianize and Europeanize them, transform them...

read more

5. The New Conflicts: Mining and Miners

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 151-176

The earliest Spanish explorers lost no time in discovering that the mountains of the Opatería were brimming with high-grade mineralization, far more so than any other portion of Northwest Mexico. By 1640, Pedro de Perea had discovered gold. He died in 1645, but others of his party discovered enough gold...

read more

6. The Opatería Following the Jesuit Expulsion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 177-222

“Once and for all, subjects must know that they have been born to obey, not to discuss lofty governmental designs.” Thus read the decree expelling the Jesuits.1 To obey the king, that is, not a pontiff or some other leader, that was the message. Whatever the real reasons for the expulsion, it was carried out with...

read more

7. Opatan Resistance: Summary and Discussion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 223-258

The expulsion of the Jesuits was followed, as we have seen, by an abrupt decline in the missions and in the religious zeal of indigenous northwesterners. One might interpret this degeneration as a sign of failure by clerics to Europeanize the Indians. We can just as well interpret it as a sign of ongoing native...

read more

Appendix. The Languages of the Opatería - David Shaul

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 259-271

In this appendix, the Lord’s Prayer is given in Ópata, Eudeve, and Jova. A literal translation is given below each word; then a more literal translation is given of each sentence. In this way, the general reader may see what the languages were like, using a familiar text. Readers may want to even try pronouncing each selection....

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 273-315

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 317-328

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 329-339

About the Authors, Other Works in the Series

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 341-344