Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Introduction: An Empire State of Mind

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pp. ix-xxx

On January 20, 2009, Barack Hussein Obama was inaugurated as the forty-fourth president of the United States. On that day, perfectly planned to coincide with the national celebration of the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday, more people gathered in Washington, D.C., than for any other event or protest in the nation’s history, ...

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1. "You Remember Dien Bien Phu!" Malcolm X and the Third World Rising

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pp. 1-44

“I am a citizen of Asia.” So read the draft card for Malcolm X upon his induction into the Korean War. Malcolm didn’t burn his draft card, as many would later. Instead, he used it as his declaration of independence. And when asked if he had filed a declaration to become a citizen of the United States, he replied, “No.” ...

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2. To the East, Blackwards: Black Power, Radical Cinema, and the Muslim Third World

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pp. 45-88

In 1970, Gil Scott-Heron released the song “Whitey on the Moon” from his album Small Talk at 125th and Lenox. As a response to U.S. astronauts setting foot on the moon on July 21, 1969, Scott-Heron, whose poignant songs about personal loss and public failure would continue throughout his brilliant career, ...

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3. Return of the Mecca: Public Enemies, Reaganism, and the Birth of Hip-Hop

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pp. 89-136

New York City, and by extension the United States, got remixed by the influence of Islam well before the idea of 9/11. But this time it was through hip-hop culture. For Muslim MCs in the 1980s, New York City and its surroundings were reclaimed by its Black inhabitants in more ways than one. ...

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4. "Ghost in the House": Muhammad Ali and the Rise of the "Green Menace"

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pp. 137-168

In October 1970, in his first fight back after his ban from boxing for refusing to fight in the Vietnam War, Muhammad Ali walked out of the dressing room and toward the ring to fight Jerry Quarry, with Ali’s charismatic cornerman, Bundini Brown, shouting, “Ghost in the house! Ghost in the house!” ...

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5. Protect Ya Neck: Global Incarceration, Islam, and the Black Radical Imagination

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pp. 169-188

In May 2001, a hip-hop benefit concert was held in Watts, California, for Jamil Al-Amin (formerly known as H. Rap Brown), who had recently been arrested and charged with killing a police officer in Georgia. Using hip-hop as a vehicle, artists such as Mos Def, Talib Kweli, Jurassic 5, Dilated Peoples, and Zion I, ...

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Epilogue: War, Repression, and the Legacy of Malcolm

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pp. 189-196

Guantánamo is still open. Drones keep flying, and more threats loom. Though there was a tremendous euphoria around the election of Barack Obama and a utopian belief that this was, in fact, a transformative moment, his presidency has meant very little to the “War on Terror” and next to nothing for racial injustice—except more of the same. ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 197-200

I must first thank my fantastic editor, Richard Morrison, and everyone at the University of Minnesota Press. Thanks so much, Richard—we were on the same page from day one, and I couldn’t have asked for more from you. You are great to work with and brilliant, too! ...

Notes

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pp. 201-220

Permissions

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pp. 221-222

Index

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pp. 223-257