Cover

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pp. 1-7

CONTENTS

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pp. vii-9

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PREFACE: POLITICS BY OTHER MEANS

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pp. ix-xvi

Milestones in health and medicine are conveyed as bearing on the broadest political and social ideals. The recent tenth anniversary of the decoding of the human genome, for example, brought with it cautious hope for the progression of genetic science from the lab bench...

ABBREVIATIONS

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pp. xvii-xviii

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Introduction: Serving the People Body and Soul

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pp. 1-22

Over three days in the spring of 1972, the Black Panther Party, the radical political organization that had emerged in Oakland, California, almost six years prior, held a Black Community Survival Conference— a gathering that combined elements of a rally, a street...

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1. African American Responses to Medical Discrimination before 1966

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pp. 23-48

In 1962 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, the leading and largest civil rights organization of the twentieth century, filed suit on behalf of a group of African American medical professionals and their patients in opposition to “separate but...

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2. Origins of Black Panther Party Health Activism

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pp. 49-74

As the ranks of the Black Panther organization rapidly swelled after its founding in 1966, community service became progressively central to its mission. In 1968 Party headquarters mandated that all chapters inaugurate “serve the people” programs. Within two years...

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3. The People’s Free Medical Clinics

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pp. 75-114

A February 1970 issue of the Black Panther featured two articles that dramatized how mainstream medicine could fail poor communities. One account told of the untimely death of James Anthony Nero, an African American infant, in Brooklyn, New York. Suffering...

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4. Spin Doctors: The Politics of Sickle Cell Anemia

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pp. 115-152

On March 29, 1972, in Oakland, California, the Party launched a three- day Black Community Survival Conference at De Fremery Park, known to the Panthers as Bobby Hutton Memorial Park after the first member of the Party besides Newton and Seale.1 This park...

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5. As American as Cherry Pie: Contesting the Biologization of Violence

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pp. 153-180

In 1973 the Black Panthers became involved in a challenge to the formation of the Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence, a research center at the University of California at Los Angeles that would be dedicated partly to investigating the biological etiology of violence....

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Conclusion: Race and Health in the Post–Civil Rights Era

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pp. 181-187

The effects of the Black Panther Party’s health activism have been multiform, registering in the evolution of individual lives, in the ebb and flow of institutions, and in the persistent struggle for healthcare access. Many former Panthers continued their work on healthcare...

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. 189-196

It would have been impossible for me to complete this work without the encouragement, support, and guidance of a host of extraordinary and extraordinarily gracious people who, in ways small and large, collectively inspired me, prodded me along, and sustained me....

NOTES

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pp. 197-257

INDEX

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pp. 259-289