Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 2-7

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-8

Illustrations

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. viii-9

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xii

While completing my doctorate in history at Georgia State University, I enrolled in a seminar on the civil rights movement taught by Dr. Jacqueline A. Rouse. In this class, she mentioned that someone should research the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) youth councils...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-xxi

This book tells the story of the NAACP youth councils and college chapters’ fight for racial equality in the United States. Because civil rights historians have focused largely on the activism of young people within the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee...

read more

Chapter One. “Ours Is an Immediate Task”: Juanita Jackson and the Origins of the NAACP Youth Movement

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-22

During the era of the Great Depression, American youth joined and formed an expanding array of organizations, tackling problems of widespread poverty and protesting racial bigotry at home and increasing militarism abroad. Propelled by the rise of fascist and racist tyranny in Italy, Germany, Japan,...

read more

Chapter Two. To “Keep Our Vision Unclouded”: War and Democracy

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 23-44

A year before the United States entered the Second World War, the NAACP leader, Walter White, had envisioned a world free from racial bigotry and social injustice. In 1940, at the First Annual NAACP Student Conference, White remarked, “We must keep ourselves free from bitterness and hatred,...

read more

Chapter Three. To Finish the Fight:“ Freedom from Fear!”

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 45-70

As youth gathered on November 21, 1946, at the eighth annual youth conference held at Dillard University in New Orleans, Louisiana, Judge Hubert Delany delivered his provocative keynote address, “Freedom from Fear.”1 Judge Delany challenged the youth to lay claim to its rights guaranteed under...

Images

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 71-78

read more

Chapter Four. “With All Deliberate Speed”: School Desegregation, Emmett Till, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 79-94

Two years had passed since the Supreme Court’s ruling outlawing segregation in public schools. At the beginning of 1956, public school desegregation had not taken place in schools throughout the South. In fact, because of noncompliance from southern states, a year after the ruling, NAACP attorneys went...

read more

Chapter Five. “More Than a Hamburger and a Cup of Coffee”: NAACP Youth and the 1960s Black Freedom Struggle

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 95-117

February 1, 2010, marked the fiftieth anniversary of the 1960 sit-in movement. The sit-in movement was initiated when four students from North Carolina A&T State University staged a sit-in on February 1, 1960, at the Woolworth’s lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. As a result of this demonstration...

read more

Chapter Six. “And If Not Now, When?” Securing Our Freedom

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 119-146

In 1962, after Herbert Wright had resigned to accept a position with higher pay with a newly formed foundation, the NAACP Youth and College Division named its new director. He had served ten years as national youth director.1 Born in Cool Springs, Mississippi, in July 1934, Laplois Ashford was appointed...

read more

Epilogue

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 147-151

In Howell Raines’s My Soul Is Rested: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement in the Deep South, Ruby Hurley elaborates on her role as the NAACP southeast regional director and her involvement in the freedom movement. Looking back years later, Hurley bemoans that many young people did not fully...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 153-191

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 193-208

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 209-226