Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-xii

I can begin by thanking Malcolm Litchfield and Ethan Knapp at The Ohio State University Press for their support, which buoyed me on to this conclusion. Thanks to Rick Emmerson for my being a medievalist at all; nor would I be here without the inspiration of Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, Caroline Walker Bynum, and Bob Hanning. ...

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Introduction • Human Limits

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pp. 1-28

The twelfth-century English monk Adam of Eynsham envisioned an afterlife in which King Henry II was made to ride an infernal horse while wearing white-hot armor, his bowels pierced through by the nails of his saddle, while “cruel tormentours, wykyd fyndis, ful gretly with derisions and scornys vpbraydyd him”2 ...

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Chapter 1 • How to Make a Human

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pp. 29-60

Sidrak and Bokkus is a 12,000-line metrical encyclopedia in which the philosopher Sidrak answers the questions of King Bokkus. Translations into Danish, Dutch, and Italian survive, as do more than seventy manuscripts of the French original, which was written no earlier than 1291, and several manuscripts of English verse and prose translations. ...

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Chapter 2 • Mastering Violence

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pp. 61-91

To the question of “Whether it is unlawful to kill any living thing” (Summa Theologica 2a2ae q. 64, a. 1), Aquinas unsurprisingly answers yes, explaining that in the natural worldly order “animals use plants, and men use animals, for food.” This system, which concedes no proper conceptual space to carnivorous animals,2 has the support of scripture. ...

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Chapter 3 • In and Out of Mortal Flesh

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pp. 92-135

So argued the second-century theologian Irenaeus in his Against Heresies. Though some animal rights thinkers understand Irenaeus as anticipating the actual resurrection of either lions or straw,3 he may be speaking only about the general perfection of animals as part of creation’s return to its prelapsarian condition. ...

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Chapter 4 • Domesticating Beasts: Cynocephali, The Wild Herdsman, and Prudentius’s Indomitable Sheep

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pp. 136-178

A ninth-century Carolingian ivory plaque, perhaps produced in Corbie, depicts in bas-relief Adam and Eve, several monsters, and various animals.1 The plaque is divided into seven vertically arranged groups: Adam and Eve appear at the top; immediately below them are anthropocephalic monsters with animal bodies: ...

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Chapter 5 • Pigs, Butchers, and The Ends of Humanity

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pp. 179-220

For the period and places I consider in this book, meat was only a secondary product of most domesticated animals. Cows provided milk, oxen and horses labor, chickens eggs, and sheep wool; other animals—dogs and cats—provided companionship as well as more practical benefits, and in usual circumstances provided humans no meat at all. ...

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Epilogue

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pp. 221-246

Up to this point, I have argued that the relationship of humans to animals is irreducibly, necessarily violent. But where was the violence when Edward I of England sent his sick falcons on pilgrimage?3 In the wax images of animals left at Exeter cathedral as offerings pleading for the miraculous cure of horses?4 ...

Works Cited

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pp. 247-280

Index

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pp. 281-292