Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Figures

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

I owe a debt of gratitude to several readers who graciously agreed to read this work. I thank Anouar Boukhars, Lowell Feld, Kurt Taylor Gaubatz, Patricia Raxter, Marc O’Reilly, and Sagar Rijal. Special thanks go to Tulu Balkir, John Duffield, Kimberly Gilligan, and Jack Kalpakian for detailed comments on earlier drafts. ...

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-24

In August 2009, President Barack H. Obama told the annual Veterans of Foreign Wars conference that the war in faraway Afghanistan was not a war of choice but rather a “war of necessity.” He believed that the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 was a grand mistake and had run strongly on that platform during the 2008 U.S. presidential campaign, ...

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1. America and Middle Eastern Oil

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pp. 25-52

The quest for energy starts with the mythical Prometheus, who stole fire from the gods to help shivering humans, and runs through to the modern struggle to ensure oil supplies to a global economy, whose lifeline is black crude. One American official asserted in 1944, referring to the Persian Gulf, that the “oil in this region is the greatest single prize in all history.”1 ...

Part I: Oil and Transnational Terrorism

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2. Explaining September 11: The Oil Factor

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pp. 55-86

Few events have received greater global scrutiny in the annals of history than the attacks of September 11, 2001. Those events came as a shock to Americans and non-Americans alike, not only because they were barbaric, sudden, and bizarre and struck American sites of symbolic importance but also because they clashed with the times. ...

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3. Rising Anti-Americanism in the Global Audience

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pp. 87-106

The September 11 attacks were motivated in part by issues related to Middle Eastern oil, but such issues have been germane beyond their impact on Al-Qaeda. These issues are followed by a global audience, partly due to their emotive importance but also because globalization has allowed world politics to become a mass spectator event. ...

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4. Oil Money, Terrorist Financing, and Weapons of Mass Destruction

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pp. 107-142

The September 11 attacks cost roughly half a million dollars, but that is a small fraction of what it costs to run the entire infrastructure of terrorism.1 This infrastructure includes recruitment, ideological indoctrination, salaries, housing, arms, support for various cells and like-minded terrorist organizations, payoffs to local governments and warlords, ...

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5. Oil Money and Hated Regimes: Fueling Terrorism

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pp. 143-156

The administration of President George W. Bush shifted gears after the September 11 attacks, adopting a strategy that the United States had employed elsewhere for decades but had not previously promoted in the Middle East, much less by the use of massive force. The Bush team had entered office largely as foreign policy realists but, after September 11, ...

Part II: Globalization and Transnational Terrorism

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6. The Deadly Nexus of Globalization, Oil, and Terrorism

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pp. 159-186

The impact of Middle Eastern oil on transnational terrorism is only half of the story that this book seeks to tell. We also have to consider the global context, which produces its own important contributions. The other half of the story about terrorism concerns the role of globalization. ...

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7. How Globalization Amplifies the Terrorist Threat

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pp. 187-200

Imagine, for a moment, a massive terrorist attack at a less globalized moment. A bomb goes off in the heart of seventeenth-century Madrid. The bomb kills only twenty people because the lack of mass transportation deprives terrorists of deadlier targets. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 201-216

When oil held great promise as the unabashed driver of the industrializing world economy, the great robber barons, the Rockefellers and the Gettys, were celebrated. They were heroes, pioneers of a new age. Their companies would move the world, and they would become enormously wealthy. ...

References

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pp. 217-236

Index

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pp. 237-242