Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-5

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. v-vi

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

The editors of this collection are grateful for the generous assistance provided by colleagues and friends as we prepared this work. The College of Charleston and the University of Oklahoma provided crucial financial support to complete this project. ...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-10

One cannot hark back to a time when gender roles were clear and simple or definitions of marriage were universally agreed upon. Gender roles and sexual identities have never been static, but rather constantly shift in relation to historical change and contact between groups. Questions about how societies choose to define gender identities, ...

read more

Subverting Gender Roles in the Sixteenth Century: Cabeza de Vaca, the Conquistador Who Became a Native American Woman

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 11-29

“I became a trader and tried to ply my trade the best I could. I liked this trade, because it gave me the freedom to go wherever I wanted. I was obligated to nothing and was not a slave. Wherever I went they treated me well and fed me because I was a trader.”1 Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, the man who wrote this statement, was a conquistador, ...

read more

“Nought but women”: Constructions of Masculinities and Modes of Emasculation in the New World

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 30-53

Over the course of the early modern period of European history, adventurers and profiteers saw the lure of the New World. Men sought to achieve wealth or glory; most desired both. European men arrived in North America with a distinctly European sense of identity that directly contradicted the masculine identities and gender relations enacted by natives. ...

read more

Revisiting Gender in Iroquoia

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 54-74

Although the unusual authority of women among the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) has been acknowledged by various observers over the centuries, others have raised doubts. Of late, however, aboriginal, feminist, and environmental movements are leading to fresh scrutiny of Haudenosaunee accomplishments. ...

read more

Who Was Salvadora de los Santos Ramirez, Otomi Indian?

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 75-101

In August of the year 1762 a woman died in the city of Querétaro in New Spain, that is, in what we often call Colonial Mexico. She was one of thousands who perished in the epidemic of smallpox that swept through the country that year.1 ...

read more

Hannah Freeman: Gendered Sovereignty in Penn’s Peaceable Kingdom

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 102-122

On July 28, 1797, Hannah Freeman, a tall, lean woman bent over with the burdens of age and illness, gave an account of her life to Moses Marshall.1 Marshall was Chester County’s newly appointed representative for the region’s first poorhouse, still in the planning stages. Marshall presumably set the tone for this interview with an emphasis placed on where Hannah lived, ...

read more

Women, Labor, and Power in the Nineteenth-Century Choctaw Nation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 123-145

Over the course of the nineteenth century, the people of the Choctaw Nation experienced tremendous change in almost every facet of their lives. Whereas traditional practices and understandings of clan obligation and responsibility had once governed the behavior of Choctaw men and women, the nineteenth century marked a transition to writing down laws ...

read more

Womanish Men and Manlike Women: The Native American Two-spirit as Warrior

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 146-164

In the first week of 1801 a young Anishinabe warrior appeared at Alexander Henry’s fur trading post on the Park River.1 The presence of yet another Indian usually attracted little notice at Henry’s establishment, but this particular individual exhibited some oddly feminine mannerisms. Curious, Henry approached some of the Anishinabeg (Ojibwas) ...

read more

Two-spirit Histories in Southwestern and Mesoamerican Literatures

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 165-184

This critical review of existing Greater Southwestern and Mesoamerican historical and contemporary literatures regarding two-spirit roles interrogates the discrepancies in findings across indigenous, U.S., and Latino borders. While U.S. Southwestern-centered writings often affirm the value of historical two-spirit genders, Eurocentric histories focused on Hispanic writings ...

Suggested Readings

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 185-186

read more

Contributors

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 187-188

Roger M. Carpenter received his doctoral degree in Native American and early American history from the University of California, Riverside. He is an assistant professor at the University of Louisiana, Monroe, and is the author of The Renewed, the Destroyed, and the Remade: The Three Thought Worlds of the Huron and the Iroquois, 1609–1650. ...

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 189-202