Cover

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Title Page

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Copyright

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Acknowledgments

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Our gratitude extends to those whose labors contributed significantly toward bringing this book to press. We are fortunate to work for a school where the free exchange of ideas is encouraged, assistance from faculty members is ever...

Contents

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p. vii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-5

After all the parades, the patriotic tributes, and the media portrayals that enshrine familiar virtues while maligning foreign vices, it is the weakest participants of armed conflict who bear its greatest burden. No matter how you look at it...

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Part One

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pp. 7-14

How do conflict protagonists characterize the civilian Other in the course of hostilities with adversaries? Our research reveals that the category of civilian noncombatant...

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1 | Who Dies in Armed Conflicts?

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pp. 15-27

From the militaristic perspective, the realities of armed conflict are often invoked to explain the civilian devastation that so often sadly results. Civilian fatalities are seen as routine, unavoidable, and in most cases excusable. For military...

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2 | Distinguishing the Enemy from theInnocent in War

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pp. 28-43

As we showed in chapter 1, civilians die in far greater numbers than do combatants in major armed conflicts across the globe.We seek to explain why the weakest participants in such conflicts are routinely subjected to the greatest degree of suffering...

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3 | Deportation from Crimea

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pp. 44-57

The politics of group identity is legend in armed conflicts of the twentieth century.While many cases of racial hatred and devastation have received world attention, other episodes are less well known. This chapter examines the enormous hardships...

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4 | Genocide in Rwanda

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pp. 58-75

In the field of international relations, threats are typically characterized as realpolitik tactics, deployed as instruments of power by nation-states. In reality, any threat is a form of coercion, control, power, manipulation, or possibly terror. This idea...

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5 | The Second Lebanon War

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pp. 76-97

On July 12, 2006, Hezbollah's Lebanese guerrillas crossed into Israel and attacked an Israeli patrol, killing three soldiers and kidnapping two others. In retaliation, Israel launched air strikes against Lebanon and imposed a naval blockade that began...

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6 | Better Safe than Dead in Iraq

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pp. 98-122

Political leaders' wartime rhetoric is riddled with simple moralistic language. When the nation is at war, civilians at home are barraged with proclamations from their leaders that their cause is just, the nation's ideals are supreme, and the...

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Part Two

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pp. 123-126

Why are civilians routinely killed in armed conflict at a far greater rate than combatants? Does this fact reflect a pattern of systematic atrocity in armed conflcts globally...

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7 | Limitations of Social Identity Theoriesin Relation to Conflict Analysis

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pp. 127-139

Again, in this book we explain civilian devastation in violent conflict through intergroup relations between militant Other and the civilian Other.We examine notions of the two Others from the perspective of the ingroup, how both groups presumably...

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8 | Understanding Group Identity as Collective Axiology

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pp. 140-152

Why does systematic violence against civilians occur? Why do some identity groups find in their heritage the values that promote reconciliation and peace,while others engulf large segments of the civilian population in mass devastation? Part...

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9 | The Normative Dimensions of Identity Conflicts

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pp. 153-164

As a major theme of the book,we argue that civilian devastation is routine and systematic to identity conflicts. But we have yet to give a precise account of such conflicts- their character and causes, their evolution and variability. In this chapter...

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10 | Causality in Explanations ofCivilian Devastation

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pp. 165-180

When identity conflicts evoke vitriolic hatred between protagonist groups, a ferocity that taps into the most violent passions of our human experience emanates from a collective fixation on the dangerous Other, a fixation that in turn tends to dominate the ingroup's entire identity and fosters a readiness...

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Conclusion

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pp. 181-186

In declarations about the "just cause" of their struggle against a sworn enemy, conflict protagonists readily recount the enemy's violent actions, inhumane character, and threat to the homeland. The enemy's evildoings are plain to any...

Notes

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pp. 187-192

References

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pp. 193-208

Index of Names

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pp. 209-212

Index of Subjects

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pp. 213-216