We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Making Moros

Imperial Historicism and American Military Rule in the Philippines' Muslim South

Michael Hawkins

Publication Year: 2013

Making Moros offers a unique look at the colonization of Muslim subjects during the early years of American rule in the southern Philippines. Hawkins argues that the ethnological discovery, organization, and subsequent colonial engineering of Moros was highly contingent on developing notions of time, history, and evolution, which ultimately superseded simplistic notions about race. He also argues that this process was highly collaborative, with Moros participating, informing, guiding, and even investing in their configuration as modern subjects. Drawing on a wealth of archival sources from both the United States and the Philippines, Making Moros presents a series of compelling episodes and gripping evidence to demonstrate its thesis. Readers will find themselves with an uncommon understanding of the Philippines’ Muslim South beyond its usual tangential place as a mere subset of American empire.

Published by: Northern Illinois University Press

Title Page, copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 1-4


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. v-vi

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. vii-xii

This book represents an attempt to highlight a critical but seldom discussed episode in Philippine history, concerning an important but often overlooked minority population. I came to my subject matter initially while working on a doctoral degree at Northern Illinois University. ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. xiii-xiv

I would first like to thank those who helped to set my feet upon the path at the outset of this project, Dr. Kenton Clymer, Dr. Eric Jones, Dr. Taylor Atkins, and Dr. Susan Russell, for their support and direction in composing an earlier draft of this work. ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 3-25

On the morning of 7 February 1911, two years before the end of American military rule in Mindanao and Sulu, more than ten thousand Filipino Muslims marched in solemn unity down the streets of Zamboanga, the colonial capital of Moro1 Province. Most of them were dressed in full battle array, displaying “wonderful colors in apparel.”2 ...

read more

1—Imperial Taxonomies

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 26-53

At the foundations of the American colonial project was a profound trust and reliance on scientific methods and scholarly theories. Indeed, history itself was viewed as a quantifiable entity, which only required correct interpretation and accurate measurement to comprehend fully. ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 54-74

While colonial officials in Mindanao often succeeded in constructing a reified, homogeneous, and philosophically manageable Moro, these officials also encountered severe challenges to their imperial taxonomies and disruptive anomalies in an otherwise fluid historicist discourse. ...

read more

3—Capitalism as Panacea

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 75-105

Though military colonial officials in Mindanao and Sulu certainly advocated and pursued policies designed to instill a sense of individual civic identity, democratic awareness, and modern education, the obstacles obstructing the institutionalization of these attributes among Moros were initially much greater than in the north. ...

read more

4—Modernity, Colonial Guilt, and the Price of Transcendent Progress

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 106-129

One of the greatest ironies of the United States’ colonial rule in the Philippines was that its humanistic, civilizing, and modernizing imperial project was in large part motivated by acute feelings of antimodernism and overcivilization. Though American imperialists openly celebrated their position at the pinnacle of history and frequently evoked a sense of historical omniscience ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 130-132

Two years prior to the end of military rule in Mindanao and Sulu, a grand council of “Leading Sultans, Dattos, Headmen and other Prominent Moros of the District of Lanao” met with the last military governor general of Moro Province, John Pershing. The meeting was filled with lavish outpourings of rhetorical affection and native pledges ...

read more

Epilogue—The American Military Period in Historical Memory

pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 133-146

In January 2008 my family and I had the privilege of traveling to Marawi City as guests of the Sultan of Tugaya. I first met the Sultan in Manila in October of the same year I was preparing to move my family down to Cagayan de Oro to continue my research in Mindanao, and he was searching for potential tenants to lease an idle second home just outside that city. ...


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 147-172


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 173-182


pdf iconDownload PDF
pp. 183-185

E-ISBN-13: 9781609090746
Print-ISBN-13: 9780875804590

Page Count: 200
Publication Year: 2013

OCLC Number: 864682236
MUSE Marc Record: Download for Making Moros

Research Areas


UPCC logo

Subject Headings

  • Muslims -- Philippines -- Mindanao Island -- History.
  • Muslims -- Philippines -- Sulu Archipelago -- History.
  • Military occupation -- Social aspects -- Philippines -- Mindanao Island -- History.
  • Military occupation -- Social aspects -- Philippines -- Sulu Archipelago -- History.
  • Mindanao Island (Philippines) -- History.
  • Sulu Archipelago (Philippines) -- History.
  • Philippines -- History -- 1898-1946.
  • Philippines -- Relations -- United States.
  • United States -- Relations -- Philippines.
  • Imperialism -- History.
  • You have access to this content
  • Free sample
  • Open Access
  • Restricted Access