Cover

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pp. 1-3

Title Page

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pp. 4-4

Copyright Page

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pp. 5-5

Table of Contents

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pp. 6-7

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Introduction: We Other Victorians: Domesticity and Modern Professionalism

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pp. 1-18

By the end of the nineteenth century, a variety of social commentators agreed that what characterized modern "civilization" was specialization.1 This agreement depended on assumptions about sexual and racial difference. Members of the professional-managerial class2 in particular historicized the rise of occupational specialization by citing the evidence of the "natural" evolution of ...

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1. Domesticity, Cultivation, and Vocation in Jane Addams and Sarah Orne Jewett

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pp. 19-35

In her preface to the 1893 edition of Deephaven, Sarah Orne Jewett describes her call to vocation some twenty years earlier as having arisen out of her "dark fear that townspeople and country people would never understand one an other."1 She felt as a "young writer" (DH, 3) that "the individuality and quaint personal characteristics of rural New England" were being "swept away" (5) ...

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2. Situated Expertise: Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, Pauline Hopkins, and the NACW

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pp. 36-55

To depict the growing friendship between Dora Smith and Sappho Clark, two of the heroines in Contending Forces (1900), Pauline Hopkins describes the way the northern-born Dora leads the southern-born Sappho through the land scape of Boston. The diction Hopkins uses to comment on this exploration is curiously repetitive: "These .free days were the gala days of [Sappho's] ...

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3. Naturalist Sentimentalism and Cultural Authority in Frank Norris and George Santayana

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pp. 56-79

In the last two chapters, we have seen how women intellectuals at the turn of the century combined the discourses of domesticity and professionalism in order to create new kinds of work for themselves. White American "new women" like Jewett and Addams mixed Victorian domestic ideology with ideas about educated cultivation to justify their entry into the professions. African ...

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4. "Going over to the Standard": The Paradoxes of Objectivity in Ida Tarbell and Willa Cather

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pp. 80-110

Since the 1930s, two sets of questions have been inextricably linked in criticism of Willa Cather's writing: whether her work is politically engaged and how that engagement or disengagement relates to her personal life.1 While the description of Cather's political and personal investments and their relation to each other have changed over the years, the structure of the debate has been remarkably consistent for over seven decades. ...

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5. Objective Domestic Critique: Anthropology and Social Reform in Ruth Benedict and Zora Neale Hurston

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pp. 111-138

In the last chapter, I showed how Ida Tarbell and Willa Cather rely on contemporary theories of the professional journalist's balanced integrity in a not always successful attempt to stabilize the opposition between Victorian domestic and modern professional culture and relatedly between (interested) subjectivity and (disinterested) objectivity. In this chapter, I turn to two women professionals who, in contrast to Tarbell and Cather, carefully and critically ...

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Afterword

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pp. 139-146

There are important conflicts in the idea of feminist professionalism in these two famous pronouncements written by a white feminist at the end of the first wave of the women's movement and a black feminist toward the end of the second wave of that movement. The first statement dramatically erases and appropriates the history of unfree black labor in the West to express a seemingly pragmatic preference for the unfreedom of women's professionalism over ...

Notes

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pp. 147-180

Bibliography

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pp. 181-191

Index

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pp. 193-196

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 197-198

In the variety of places this book was written, I have benefited from the generosity of many people. I would like to thank my graduate school teachers Laura Brown, Walter Cohen, Shirley Samuels, and especially Mark Seltzer for their support over the years. For their advice and encouragement, I also want to express my gratitude to Ann Ardis, Peter Carafiol, Dan Cottom, Alice Gam ...