Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title page, Copyright Page

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Foreword

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pp. ix-xii

Regrettably, an attitude dominates in the land that all things classical are the exclusive property of white folks. To declare this anemic attitude a crock of creeping ignorantum hardly addresses the extent of the problem. Over ten years ago, I published The American Aeneas: Classical Origins of the American Self (University of Tennessee Press, 2001), ...

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xvi

In this book, I begin a new thread in a conversation about the influence of antiquity on American civilization and American education that has gone on for quite some time. While many of the scholars gathered around the topic have made exceptional observations about antiquity and the American experience, ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xvii-xviii

I would like to thank my family for all their support as I developed this book. Thanks as well to the local Durham, North Carolina, businesses that continue to make space for scholars lingering over meals and coffee to work. I greatly appreciate those close friends and colleagues who were part of those regular, varied, and provocative exchanges ...

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Introduction: A More Than Partial Grace: A Prolegomenon for African American Experiences with the Classics

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pp. 1-24

African American writers have confronted a multitude of claims against black intelligence and humanity, lodged by white detractors and dating from the colonial period onward. They countered these assaults in numerous literary genres, notably Protestant evangelical sermons, political treatises, and the slave narrative tradition. ...

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Chapter 1: The Trojan Horse: Phillis Wheatley

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pp. 25-64

In 1772, at the commencement of a revolutionary season, a youthful Phillis Wheatley sought to publish a collection of classically pastoral, epic, religious, and elegiac poetry. Revolutionary in her own right, the young poet disrupted established assumptions about black literary authorship in eighteenth-century America ...

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Chapter 2: The Virtuous Voice of Frederick Douglass

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pp. 65-120

Frederick Douglass’s extemporaneous speech in 1841 at the Nantucket Athenaeum inaugurated his historic career as a national abolitionist orator and, combined with subsequent early speeches for William Lloyd Garrison’s antislavery society, transformed abolitionist oratory. ...

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Chapter 3: Sine Qua Non: The Voice of Anna Julia Cooper

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pp. 121-158

The podium of the 1893 World Congress of Representative Women in Chicago held a formidable array of African American women. After bitter complaints from prominent black women that the Columbian Exposition’s women’s exhibit exemplified the exclusive and racist nature of the event, organizers invited Anna Julia Cooper, Fannie Barrier Williams, ...

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Chapter 4: Quo Vadis?: W. E. B. Du Bois and The Souls of Black Folk

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pp. 159-192

The critical attention to Anna Julia Cooper’s writing pales in comparison to the volume of scholarship that W. E. B. Du Bois’s internationally renowned The Souls of Black Folk has produced. Du Bois has long been recognized as one of the most important African American writers and among the most influential American writers. ...

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Conclusion: Απολλων: The Temple of Apollo

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pp. 193-198

How the African American writers I have examined used the classics reflected their individual needs to establish positions of authority or authenticity as writers, scholars, race representatives, or leaders. Moreover, whether or not specific classical texts assumed prominence in their various works and which works emerged as definitive for each writer ...

Notes

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pp. 199-238

Works Cited and Consulted

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pp. 239-250

Index

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pp. 251-262