Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-9

CONTENTS

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pp. ix-11

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xi-15

It is impossible to name everyone who has helped with this project, but special thanks to John Gage, Henry Johnstone, John Lyne, Marie Secor, David Bartholomae, David Kaufer, Lenore Langsdorf, Anne Laskaya, Doug Mitchell, Suzanne Clark, Bill Rossi, and Mike Bybee, who-by criticism or encouragement or both (even at the same time)-have all contributed to the completion of this work. Thanks, too, to my many friends...

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INTRODUCTION

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pp. 3-10

...construction of the theory of argumentation. One of its purposes is to articulate a new defense of the teaching of written reasoning in higher education. Not surprisingly, the book defends argumentative rationality against its contemporary postmodern detractors. However, what is unusual about the approach is that this defense begins by accepting ...

PART ONE PHILOSOPHY, RHETORIC, AND ARGUMENTATION

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pp. 11-25

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1 THE END OF PHILOSOPHY AND THE RESURGENCE OF RHETORIC

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pp. 13-48

...for a number of reasons and thus in a number of different ways, so peo ple study and theorize argumentation for different purposes and thus from a number of angles. My project here is to discover what a rhetorical concept of reason can bring to the theory of argumentation. Thus, the most direct purpose of this book is to make a contribution to the the ...

PART TWO RECONSTRUCTING ARGUMENTATION

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pp. 49-63

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2 CLAIMING

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pp. 51-82

The traditional concept of argument is well represented in logic textbooks. Here is a typical example: "An argument is any group of propositions of which one is claimed to follow from the others, which are regarded as providing evidence for the truth of that one."1 The essential ideas are clear enough: arguments are sets of propositions; these propositions have a logical relation to one another that constitutes them as an argument; the aim of argumentation...

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3 QUESTIONING

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pp. 84-101

...questioning was an essential feature of claiming. Since the questioner's role in argumentation is usually suppressed in logic-based theories of reasoning, a theory of questioning has not traditionally played a role in accounts of argumentation. Some logicians have recently turned their attention toward dialogue games, and this attention has included a focus ...

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4 ARGUMENT AND CONFLICT

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pp. 101-132

...of reason had provided a way to resolve conflicts peacefully, had offered a court of appeal beyond the authority of any actual social power, and had helped to make clear the goals of higher education. I mentioned that part of the measure of a rhetorical theory of reason would be its success at accomplishing these same purposes. In order to understand how a ...

PART THREE EVALUATING ARGUMENTS

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pp. 133-147

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5 AUDIENCES AND ARGUMENTS

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pp. 135-164

...ical situation of theories of reason, and showed how the collapse of traditional models of argumentative reasoning called for a new rhetorical account of reason and argument. The following chapters sketched the general outlines of such a theory, and then began to try to fill in the out The reconstruction of argumentation offered in the chapters on claim ...

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6 BEING UNREASONABLE

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pp. 165-187

...theory of rationality could offer standards for the evaluation of reason ing that are at least as exacting as those of traditional logic-and in some respects even more demanding. I want to continue that effort in this chapter by outlining a new, rhetorical theory of fallacies. A rhetorical theory of fallacies succeeds in two ways that logic-based theories of fal ...

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7 ARGUMENT AND IDEOLOGY

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pp. 188-220

...oric of reason could provide a satisfactory account of what happens when we evaluate arguments. In this chapter, I would like to step back from the idea of evaluating arguments, and consider how argumenta tion itself might be evaluated. After all, we not only evaluate arguments but also make judgments about when, where, and to what degree it is ...

PART FOUR ARGUMENT, INQUIRY, AND EDUCATION

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pp. 221-235

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8 ARGUMENT AS INQUIRY

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pp. 223-268

...aims of argumentation are understood primarily in terms of the agreements and the resolution of conflict reached through the process of argumentation. I have emphasized the self- and socially transformative features of this process, at times to the relative neglect of questions about knowledge, research, and inquiry. This is because my first aim is to con ...

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9 RHETORIC, ETHICS, AND THE AIMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION

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pp. 269-302

...structing the theory of argumentation in a way that responds to con temporary skepticism about reason and argument. It has also been con cerned with describing argumentation in ways that will help inform the curricula and the aims of college writing courses. The question of the purpose and content of such courses is a critical-and controversial ...

NOTE SREFERENCES INDEX

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pp. 303-332