Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Preface

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pp. vii-xi

...book on historical discourse, especially if the author wants historians as well as literary scholars to read the book and to think about it seriously, as I certainly do. Just to get the story straight is the first duty of the historian, according to an influential tradition of scholarship, which presumes (a) that there is a "story" out there waiting to be told, and ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xii-13

...more numerous than this list can indicate. F. R. Ankersmit, Robert Berkhofer, Richard Buel, Joan Burbick, Philippe Carrard, Jonathan Cul ler, Gregor Dallas, A. C. Goodson, Margaret Grimes, Joel Fineman, Micheline Herz, Herbert Josephs, Stephen Kaplan, Ruth Kimmerer, Dominick LaCapra, Richard Macksey, Wallace Martin, Allan Megill, ...

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Part One: The Other Sources: History and Language

...about history. From this moment back to the Reformation, or to the Magna Carta, or to the construction of the pyramids is an unbroken span of time, moment to moment. There is no rational reason to believe that Joshua (with Gods help) could extend the length of a day in order to win a battle, nor that time would stop for decades around Sleeping ...

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1. The Deepest Respect for Reality

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pp. 3-25

...the sections that make up the book to follow is a questionable one; it is my contention from the start that focus is in a certain sense the enemy (albeit a valuable and necessary enemy) of any worthwhile discussion of the problems involved in historical writing and language, the prob lems around which all of the chapters in this book revolve. The power of ...

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2. Time Out: The Discontinuity of Historical Consciousness

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pp. 26-54

...problem of historical knowledge is dramatically posed. An enigmatic and controversial man, Charles Foster Kane, has died in the grandiose, gothic seclusion of his unfinished palace, Xanadu; his dying word is "Rosebud." A journalist, facing the inadequacy of the official facts of Kane~ life, begins a rigorous quest for the key to the code of its mean ...

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3. Boundaries of the Text: History as Passage

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pp. 55-74

... it covers the gaps in time, in action, in documentation, even when it points to them. One problem, however, lies both inside and outside the historical text, or, one might say, it exists in a space of its own. This is the problem of boundaries. Because historical works are caught in certain ambiguities entailed by their position in language, ...

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Part Two: The Language of Historians: Four Shipwrecks

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pp. 75-78

...most particularly by marxism in both its scientific-mechanical and Hegelian-organicist modes, it is hard to find any significant historical venture that does not strive for some vision of totality. "Only connect" might serve as the ideal historical slogan. Hegel had stated that "the truth is the whole," but that observation hardly solved the problem of ...

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4. Guizot and the Poets

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pp. 79-101

Bagehots summary of Francois Guizot. Since the nineteenth century, Guizots political unpopularity has not abated. His views were far too complicated and qualified for an age when division lines were clearly drawn, often at barricades. He appears as a philistine, a political cal culating machine whose calculations ultimately erred. He left no ...

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5. Narrating the "Tableau": Questions of Narrativity in Michelet

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pp. 102-123

... and grudgingly, to accept the proposition that, as Paul Ricoeur put it, history and fiction together form a "grand narratology," a narratology that stands, for better or worse, as the basis of our culture and its unique way of defining, describing, and dominating human reality. 2 Storytelling may indeed be universal, but formal narratives of the sort ...

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6. Figures in the Rumpelkammer: Goethe, Faust, Spengler

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pp. 124-152

Neither Goethe nor his creature Faust displays a high regard for history, at least insofar as history is the product of specially trained men and women called historians. Their plaint was not that history failed to mirror its subject, but rather that it had two subjects and mirrored only one of these all too faithfully. The faithfully mirrored subject was the historian, whose...

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7. Disorderly Conduct: Braudel's Mediterranean Satire

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pp. 153-188

Two things have been clear about Fernand Braudels La Mediterranee et Ie monde mediterraneen a l'epoque de Philippe II since its publication in 1949; first, that it is a remarkable work of historical scholarship and imagination, destined to become a landmark of twentieth century historiography; and second, that...

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Part Three: Tropology and Narrativity

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pp. 189-192

When Hayden White published Metahistory: The Historical lmagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe in 1973, the most unconventional, and ostensibly unhistorical, part of the book was its use of the theory of tropes. Four classical figures of speech, well known since antiquity, were presented as the models for the II deep structures" of historical thought. Not only historians, but also historical eras, were dominated by one or another...

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8. A Bedrock of Order: Hayden White's Linguistic Humanism

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pp. 193-227

...not, like that of the Iliad, identify its hero by name. He is called only polytropos, which is literally (although rarely) translated as " [the man of] many turns" -other renderings include" the adventurous man," " that ingenious hero," "the man of many devices," or (my own favorite) "skilled in all ways of contending." It was Odysseus who proposed the ...

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9. The Inflatable Trope as Narrative Theory: Structure or Allegory?

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pp. 228-251

...literary studies, elevated in part by the broadly structuralist mood of the times, the various needs of different kinds of critics discussing different kinds of texts have put considerable pressure upon literary theory to provide some sort of "philosophers stone," some key to the mystery of texts. The well-known problem of linguistic theories of ...

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10. Tropology Versus Narrativity: Freud and the Formalists

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pp. 252-264

...the previous chapter is a troubling one. Such abstract and capacious literary terms cry out for some specific textual discussion, yet because no text is unirnplicated somehow in these terms, any such exemplary discussion is likely to seem not quite germane to the topic. There is no solution to the quandary, but if the text involved were somehow a priv ...

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Part Four: Allegory and Anxiety

...resistance to rhetoric mentioned in the first chapter of this book. For most historians pure rejection, using the classic defense of the specialist (" that's not my field," or "it's not really history") has sufficed, but when a Kant, a Freud, or Hayden White shows concern about the status and power of language over his constructs-which are devoted to display ...

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11. Triangular Anxieties: The Present State of European Intellectual History

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pp. 267-293

...of their own trade, the time is, at least in some small and very literal sense, out of joint; the future, that great generator of insecurity, must be defused, turned into a special variety of the past, a new sourcebook in the "lessons of history." Since the question "Where are we going?" almost invariably covers the question "Where are we?" -itself a surro ...

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12. Narrativity in History: Post-Structuralism and Since

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pp. 294-324

...suggest that what is at issue is a simple decision: should the historian tell a story (i.e., narrate the material in a chronological, cause-effect way) or not. To choose not to tell a story is to be more "modern," follow ing the social and economic sciences in presenting synchronic, and quantitative if possible, models of past affairs. New historical methods ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 325-334

...of Civilization, Guizot refers to them as "the immortal part" of history. By this he implies that while opinions, theories, fads, ideologies, classes, and regimes may come and go (and themselves become facts), through research (and Guizot's role as minister in editing and publish ing historical documents is well known), but once established by critical ...

Index

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pp. 335-339

Other Works in the Series

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pp. 340-353