Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-6

Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

We would like to thank the contributors to this volume for their scholarly insights and professionalism and the enthusiasm they brought to this project. Their efforts made our task much more manageable than it might otherwise have been. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

Practically every student of political philosophy is familiar with Aristotle’s remark that philosophy begins in wonder. Rare, perhaps, is the great fortune of experiencing the principle of wonder embodied in the life and work of individuals. Catherine Zuckert and Michael Zuckert are two such individuals. ...

Part I: Classical Natural Right

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Chapter One: Virtue and Self-Control in Xenophon’s Socratic Thought

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pp. 15-35

Socrates is famous for his radical claim that knowledge is the necessary and sufficient cause of virtue. Anyone who truly understands what is good will do it, he often argues, and anyone who does wrong should be educated and not punished. Aristotle devotes much of the Nicomachean Ethics to examining this audacious claim ...

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Chapter Two: The Complexity of Divine Speech and the Quest for the Ideas in Plato’s Euthyphro

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pp. 36-49

The postmodern political philosopher Richard Rorty accuses religion of taking the “God’s-eye point of view.” Positing universal moral truths that transcend particular historical and cultural contexts, the religious view is problematic according to Rorty because “when we gave up on God” we also gave up on “tru[th] in an unconditional sense” (Rorty 1990, 633–36). ...

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Chapter Three: Politics and Philosophy in Aristotle’s Critique of Plato’s Laws

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pp. 50-66

Whether on matters of politics or physics, Aristotle’s criticism of his predecessors is not generally considered a model of charitable interpretation. He seems to prefer, as Christopher Rowe puts it, “polemic over accuracy” (2003, 90). His criticism of the Laws is particularly puzzling: ...

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Chapter Four: Both Friends and Truth Are Dear: Aristotle’s Political Thought as a Response to Plato

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pp. 67-96

Aristotle’s criticisms of Plato’s political thought are well known. He begins his Politics, for example, by criticizing those who fail to distinguish the kind of rule appropriate to political communities from that of masters over slaves, kings over subjects, and even heads of families over their members (1257a ff.). ...

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Chapter Five: Augustinian Humility as Natural Right

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pp. 97-114

Augustine’s City of God (CG) makes an impassioned and dialogically reasoned defense of Christianity against those who claim that the new religion bears chief responsibility for the Roman Empire’s decline and fall (ongoing as Augustine wrote and sealed shortly after his death in 430 C.E.). ...

Part II: Modern Natural Rights

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Chapter Six: On the Treatment of Moral Responsibility in Montaigne’s Essays I.15–16

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pp. 117-131

For most of the twentieth century the dominant interpretation of Montaigne’s Essays viewed it as recording the gradual evolution of its author’s thought and attitudes, from the “impersonal” character of the chapters thought to have been composed first, in which the author typically defers to the Stoic wisdom of classical antiquity ...

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Chapter Seven: Benedict Spinoza and the Problem of Theocracy

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pp. 132-152

Of all the features of Spinoza’s political theory, perhaps none is more perplexing than his account of the Old Testament Hebrew Commonwealth in chapters 17 and 18 of the Theological-Political Treatise. In this discussion of the Hebrew polity governed by Mosaic Law, Spinoza presents his fullest analysis of the intersection of religion and politics; ...

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Chapter Eight: Criminal Procedure as the Most Important Knowledge and the Distinction between Human and Divine Justice in Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws

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pp. 153-173

Montesquieu is famous for his moderation in his consideration of the practices of the myriad regimes and cultures he discusses in Spirit of the Laws (Carrithers 1977, 34–40; Durkheim 1960, 15–16). The author, who likens himself to a painter, presents these foreign practices in shades of gray rather than in bold declarations of praise or blame. ...

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Chapter Nine: Personhood and Ethical Commercial Life: Hegel’s Transformation of Locke

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pp. 174-192

John Locke, the enduring spokesman of liberalism and often its whipping boy, has suffered blow after blow from Marxists, communitarians, and multiculturalists. The charges are familiar: the political equality of the social contract obscures the deeper human inequalities lodged in our social interactions; ...

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Chapter Ten: Reflections on Faith and Reason: Leo Strauss and John Paul II

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pp. 193-208

Relatively late in his life, in 1965, Leo Strauss wrote that the “theologico-political problem” had been “the theme” of his “investigations” (Strauss 1997a, 453; original emphasis).1 Also in the 1960s and in the final sentence of The City and Man, Strauss stressed that “we [must] be open to the full impact of the all-important question ...

Part III: American Political Thought and Practice

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Chapter Eleven: Locke, the Puritans, and America: Reflections on the Christian Dimension of Our Personal Identities

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pp. 211-234

Provoked by the wonderfully lucid, penetrating, and pathbreaking work of Michael Zuckert and his excellent students, I’ve come closer than ever to figuring out what Americans owe the Puritans. I’ve been thinking, in other words, about the relationship between Locke and Christianity, coming to the conclusion that the Lockean conception ...

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Chapter Twelve: Thomas Jefferson, the First American Progressive?

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pp. 235-251

Thomas Jefferson did not take part in the framing of the Constitution or in the drive to secure its ratification. These events he watched from afar, receiving regular briefings from James Madison while serving as minister to France from 1784 to 1789. At first he was part of a three-man delegation, ...

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Chapter Thirteen: Gouverneur Morris and the Creation of American Constitutionalism

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pp. 252-276

In recent years biographies of John Adams and Alexander Hamilton have led to a renewed appreciation of their contributions to the American founding, but five new biographies of Gouverneur Morris have done little to rescue him from relative obscurity (Adams 2003; Brookhiser 2003; Kirschke 2005; Miller 2005, 2008). ...

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Chapter Fourteen: The Presidency in the Constitutional Convention of 1787

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pp. 277-296

Over the past few decades the field of political science has witnessed a substantial rehabilitation of the study of the American Founding and its contemporary relevance. Very few scholars have contributed as much to this development as Michael Zuckert. ...

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Chapter Fifteen: From Statesman to Secular Saint: Booker T. Washington on Abraham Lincoln

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pp. 297-321

In 1905 a white woman from California sent Booker T. Washington her design for a “Negro Flag”: a portrait of Abraham Lincoln surrounded by thirty-six stars representing the states in the Union at the conclusion of the Civil War. It was apparently the custom of the day for various immigrant groups to display a heritage flag, ...

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Chapter Sixteen: Theodore Roosevelt on Statesmanship and Constitutionalism

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pp. 322-342

Even before he embarked on his political career, and long before he described the presidency as a bully pulpit, Theodore Roosevelt became an educator of the American people. Most politicians might be said to be educators, more or less, as they seek to persuade by means of their political and largely partisan advocacy, written or spoken. ...

Part IV: Politics and Literature

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Chapter Seventeen: Of “Demagogic Apes”: Euripides’ Democratic Critique of Democratic Athens

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pp. 345-360

Euripides does not fare well in Aristophanes’ plays; in this, he is no different from most of the characters, human or divine, who walk on Aristophanes’ stage. Mostly, though, the scurrilous portraits (with the notable exception of Socrates) attack political actors pursuing political power for their self-interested purposes. ...

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Chapter Eighteen: The Inevitable Monarchy: Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar

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pp. 361-382

Julius Caesar has always been one of my favorite Shakespeare plays. I tend to attribute this to the way Shakespeare draws us inside a political conspiracy, allowing us to experience in a very intimate way the tension, danger, and exhilaration of playing politics, at the very highest level, for keeps. ...

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Chapter Nineteen: Preliminary Observations on the Theologico-Political Dimension of Cervantes’ Don Quixote

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pp. 383-399

Among the many playfully provocative, enigmatic features of Cervantes’ masterpiece, none is so basic as the puzzle posed by the bewilderingly manifold authorial voice and perspective through which the tale is delivered to us. In the first two sentences of the prologue to the first volume (published in 1605), ...

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Chapter Twenty: Custom, Change, and Character in Edith Wharton’s The Age of Innocence

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pp. 400-419

Edith Wharton’s The Age of Innocence is partly a sociological study, a detailed portrait of the manners and mores of the society in which Wharton herself grew up, the old New York of the 1870s. It is also, of course, a dramatic tale, depicting the ill-fated love between Newland Archer and Ellen Olenska. ...

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Chapter Twenty-One: “What’s wrong with this picture?”: On The Coast of Utopia

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pp. 420-430

Catherine Zuckert and Michael Zuckert have always mixed together the enormous respect owed the great thinkers of the past with a healthy curiosity for what is going on in the present (Michael Zuckert once eagerly attended a concert given by an orchestra composed of manual typewriters). ...

Selected Publications by Catherine Zuckert and Michael Zuckert

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pp. 431-434

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Contributors

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pp. 435-442

David Alvis (PhD, Fordham University) teaches American politics and political theory at Wofford College. His publications include essays on a variety of subjects, including Progressivism and American political thought, the films of John Ford, and the origins of the presidency in the Constitutional Convention. ...

Index

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pp. 443-469

Back Cover

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pp. 482-482