Cover Page

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication, Series Forward, Acknowledgments

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pp. 2-11

Contents

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pp. xi-xiv

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Introduction

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pp. 1-4

Assessment in the Second Language Writing Classroom is a teacher-friendly and prospective teacher–friendly book, uncomplicated by the language of statistics. The book was written for those who teach and assess second language writing in several different contexts: ...

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1. Historical and Theoretical Contexts of Second Language Writing Assessment

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pp. 5-30

Assessing student writing is quite possibly one of the most time-consuming (and) scary but most significant things teachers do. It is generally considered one of the biggest problems confronting writing instructors (both English and English as a Second Language) and composition program administrators today ...

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2. An Overview of the Tools of Writing Assessment

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pp. 31-55

Just as carpenters need specialized tools to perform carpentry tasks well, writing teachers also require a focused set of tools to help them assess their students’ writing. But first, in order to use those tools well, teachers need to ask themselves questions about assessment and about their students. ...

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3. Designing Assignments and Rubrics

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pp. 56-86

When I talk with ESL and EFL teachers, I am surprised—whether they teach kindergarten or college—to learn that although they constantly evaluate their students, both formally and informally, few think of themselves as assessment experts. ...

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4. Biases in Writing Assessment: What Are They and What Can We Do about Them?

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pp. 87-114

It is extremely difficult to develop any test without introducing cultural bias. A test is biased if members of one particular gender, culture, age group, language group, or race achieves statistically different results from the general population in any portion of the test. ...

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5. Large-Scale Writing Assessment and Its Influences on L2 Writing

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pp. 115-136

Testing is often at the forefront of the news. A review of U.S. testing history shows that standardized tests have evolved rapidly over the past century and have become a potent force in education (Washington Post, 2006). ...

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6. Innovative Technology in the L2 Writing Classroom

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pp. 137-155

This chapter examines several technological innovations and their effects on writing assessment in the L2 writing classroom: synchronous and asynchronous communication tools, online paper mills, online writing centers, and the outsourcing of assessment and other functions of the writing classroom through online instruments. ...

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7. Looking Beyond: What Can We Expect of Writing Assessment in the Future? The Machine Scoring of Essays

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pp. 156-179

Several notions loom large for the future of writing assessment. One of them is the supposed benefit of the machine scoring of essays. The day may come when computers will be able to do what humans do today. However, analysis of text is an incredibly complex undertaking (Warschauer & Ware, 2006). ...

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Epilogue: Where Do We Go from Here?

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pp. 180-185

In 1996, Hamp-Lyons & Kroll claimed, “We understand a great deal less about our test-takers from countries around the world than we need to: This is the great underresearched aspect of language testing” (p. 236). ...

Appendix 1

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pp. 186-188

References

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pp. 189-205

Index

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pp. 206-210