Cover

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pp. C-C

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

List of Figures

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pp. ix-x

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Preface and Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

The work included in the following pages has been conducted over many years, from the mid-1980s until 2012. While the final writing has taken place at various stages between 2007 and 2012, fieldwork was carried out between 1986 and 1991, and in late 2002 and early 2003....

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

Although relatively small in size, the republic of Ecuador is known for its remarkable geography and cultural diversity. Ecuador’s indigenous peoples have long drawn the attention of ethnographers, historians, and political scientists,1 but with a few outstanding exceptions (West 1952, 1957; Whitten 1965, 1970, 1974; de la Torre 2002a; Walsh 2010a, 2010b; Walsh and...

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1. Setting Up the Stage: Contextualizing the Afro-Esmeraldian Festival of the Kings

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pp. 13-34

My approach consists of viewing festivities as nonstatic texts always embedded in ever changing or evolving sociocultural, economic, and political realities. Thus, my concern here is not the discovery of the origin of the various aspects of the Festival in order to identify more or less “pure” and “authentic” forms, or to interpret the festival as if the only way to read...

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2. The Village of Santo Domingo de Onzole and the Period of Preparation of the Festival of the Kings

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pp. 35-60

Santo Domingo de Ónzole is located deep in the Esmeraldian rainforest on the left bank of the Ónzole River, an affluent of the Cayapas River, which itself reaches the Santiago River near Borbón (see figure 1). It does not differ much from the other small Afro-Esmeraldian villages established deep inside the rainforest (Concepción, Güimbí, Telembí, Selva Alegre). Although...

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3. The Festival of the Kings in Santo Domingo de Onzole

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pp. 61-97

Elders told me that in the past, January 6 was called the “day of the whites” and also the “day of the first King”; January 7 was called the “day of the Cayapas” or “day of the coloreds” (día de los colorados); and January 8 was called “day of the blacks” or more precisely “day of the little blacks” (día de los negritos). This strict division of the festival’s three days that allocates...

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4. The Festival of the Kings in La Tola

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pp. 98-120

The situation, the population, and the history of the village of La Tola differ quite strikingly from those of Santo Domingo. These differences explain, in final analysis, the singularities of the Play in each one of the two villages. In the following pages, I underline the characteristics of La Tola that are indispensable for the interpretation of the Toleño Play and for its...

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5. Race, Sexuality, and Gender as They Relate to the Play of the Cowls

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pp. 121-142

As the descriptive interpretations of chapters 2, 3, and 4 have shown, race and race relations, as well as sexuality and gender relations, constitute major fields of meaning for the interpretation of the Afro-Esmeraldian Festival of the Kings in Santo Domingo de Ónzole and in La Tola....

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6. Performances and Contexts of the Play in January 2003

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pp. 143-163

This chapter provides ethnographic information about the Play in both villages at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
In December 2002, after having decided to go back to my work on the Festival with the purpose of eventually publishing it, I traveled to the province of Esmeraldas, where I spent four weeks doing some fieldwork. My objective was...

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Conclusion: From the Centrality of Place in Esmeraldian Ethnography to Theoretical and Methodologica

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pp. 164-174

The work of Isidoro Moreno (1985; 1997; 1999) leaves no doubt about the European and Catholic origin of the Afro-Esmeraldian Festival of the Kings, which was certainly introduced to the forefathers of today’s Afro- Esmeraldians by Catholic missionaries. It would be interesting to consult, if they exist, Catholic missionaries’ reports and other relevant documents...

Glossary of Esmeraldian Spanish Terms

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pp. 175-178

Notes

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pp. 179-182

References

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pp. 183-194

Index

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pp. 195-198

About the Author, Further Reading, Production Note

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pp. 199-202