Cover

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pp. 1-5

Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

This book is the result of a long intellectual journey begun in 2000. I have accumulated vast debts to many friends and colleagues while receiving financial aid from a number of institutions. Thanks to their support, this book is now ready to go forth into the world. ...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-18

In 1684, forty years after a Manchu army had seized power in Beijing, an extraordinary rumor shot along the Chinese coast, then across the ocean to Nagasaki, Batavia (Jakarta), and Manila: the three-hundred-year-old embargo on Chinese private maritime trade was being lifted. Soon the rumor caught the attention of English merchants serving the East India Company.1 ...

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Chapter 1. Chinese Private Maritime Trade and Global Integration

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pp. 19-40

Strengthening the economic links between China and the outside world through private maritime trade would enrich the country—so hoped the framers of the new policy announced in 1684. The initiative represented a different approach to early globalization: whereas in Europe states sponsored overseas expansion, ...

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Chapter 2. Reconsidering Overseas Trade: The Chinese Intellectual Response to the Emerging Global Economy

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pp. 41-56

Chinese scholars and officials were long aware of the impact of overseas trade. From Zhen Dexiu (1178–1235) in the Southern Song to Xu Fuyuan (1535–1604), Xu Guangqi (1562–1633), and Li Guangdi (1642–1718) in the Ming and Qing, many of those who wrote on the topic were court officials who had to face the challenges caused by maritime trade ...

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Chapter 3. The Northeast Asian Trade Network, the Manchu Procommerce Tradition, and the 1684 Open-Door Trade Policy

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pp. 57-78

In May 1685, the Kangxi emperor invited his court officials to debate the merits of allowing bannermen to trade overseas. A number of these officials were themselves bannermen, and with Mingju as their leader and spokesman they responded with the suggestion that Manchus be allowed to engage in maritime trade.1 ...

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Chapter 4. Enriching the State by Cherishing Private Trade: The Kangxi Emperor and the 1684 Open Trade Policy

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pp. 79-98

As historians have shifted from a traditional focus on “great men” to the minor figures of the past, global historians have accorded merchants a place of honor. Yet we still find it practical to present the lives and deeds of merchants (and others whose experiences have tended to be overlooked) in relation to the policies and decisions made by the great. ...

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Chapter 5. Separating Trade from Tribute: Kangxi Ends the Tribute Trade System

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pp. 99-115

When the Kangxi emperor decided to open the gates of the Qing empire to the foreign world, he supplemented the three-hundred-year-old tribute trade system with an early modern customs office. All those who wished to trade with China, whether by conveying tribute to the capital or by any other means, were issued government permits. ...

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Chapter 6. The Establishment of the Qing Maritime Customs System and the Growth of Private Trade

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pp. 116-136

At the same time that Kangxi initiated the historic reforms to the tribute trade system, he directed the drafting of new regulations ensuring that private maritime trade would expand under the careful supervision of the central government. Over the course of the century beginning in 1684, Chinese maritime customs gave more space to private trade. ...

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Chapter 7. Economic Interests, Security Concerns, and the Tribute System: Kangxi’s Response to Tokugawa Japan’s Licensing System

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pp. 137-152

On June 4, 1701, a Manchu who could have been mistaken for a merchant sailed from Shanghai, one of many Chinese ports that had been open for trade with the outside world since 1684.1 Several days later, he suddenly appeared in Nagasaki, where not a soul could have guessed his identity or his mission. ...

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Chapter 8. The Kangxi Emperor Bans Trade with Southeast Asia

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pp. 153-168

In October 1716, the Kangxi emperor decided to bring an immediate halt to all Chinese navigation to Southeast Asia, targeting mainly Chinese private traders operating there. He ordered imperial fleets to seize all ships found carrying forbidden cargo; merchants guilty of violating the ban could be exiled to remote Manchuria. ...

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Chapter 9. Western Merchants, Local Interests, and Christian Penetration: A New Interpretation of the Canton System

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pp. 169-186

In 1755 a British ship docked at Dinghai, a port city near Ningbo in Zhejiang province, and its captain formally requested permission to trade with local merchants. Later, when the Qianlong emperor reviewed the reports from his officials posted in the area, he noticed nothing out of the ordinary. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 187-194

In concluding, I would like to present some answers to the questions posed in the introduction, namely, the significance of the 1684 trade policy in Chinese maritime history, the characteristics of the Chinese maritime enterprise, and the evolution of the East Asian trade network. ...

Notes

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pp. 195-232

Glossary

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pp. 233-234

Bibliography

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pp. 235-262

Index

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pp. 263-268