Front cover

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pp. 1-4

Copyright

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pp. 5-7

Contents

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pp. 8-8

Maps and Illustrations

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pp. viii-x

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1. Nostalgia, Narrative, and Northern Civil Rights Movement History

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pp. 1-29

On February 3, 1964, one of the largest civil rights demonstrations in U.S. history occurred. Nearly half a million students boycotted a racially segregated municipal public school system as parents and activists ...

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2. "Pass Them By! Support Your Brothers and Sisters in the South!": The Origins of Brooklyn CORE

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pp. 31-58

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) formed in Chicago in 1942. Initially, CORE was a spin-off group of an interfaith, pacifist organization called the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). In the early 1940s a handful of ...

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3. Why Not Next Door?: Battling Housing Discrimination, Case by Case

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pp. 59-96

Housing discrimination was one of the most rampant forms of prejudice African Americans experienced in Brooklyn and in many other northern cities throughout the twentieth century. By the 1960s residential patterns in Brooklyn had ...

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4. Operation Unemployment: Breaking through the Color Line in Local Industries

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pp. 97-127

When Oliver Leeds became chairman of Brooklyn CORE in January 1962, he inherited a membership that was small, socially cohesive, and very energetic, but also extremely disorganized. Aside from problems with its ...

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5. Operation Clean Sweep: The Movement to Create a “First-Class Bedford-Stuyvesant”

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pp. 129-169

Brooklyn CORE members chose to address the issue of inadequate garbage collection because the excessive trash was such an odious part of people’s everyday life in Bedford-Stuyvesant, and, by late 1962, after their work ...

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6. "A War for the Minds and Futures of Our Negro and Puerto Rican Children": The Bibuld Family’s Fight to Desegregate Brooklyn’s Public Schools

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pp. 171-208

In New York City during the 1960s, the race and class of a neighborhood’s inhabitants powerfully shaped the quality of education in its public schools. In economically stable communities, where residents’ ...

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7. "We Had Struggled in Vain": Protest for Construction Jobs and Specters of Violence

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pp. 209-247

Brooklyn CORE’s campaign to integrate the construction workforce building the Downstate Medical Center inspired tremendous community support and attracted over one hundred new affiliate members to the ...

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8. "A Gun at the Heart of the City": The World’s Fair Stall-in and the Decline of Brooklyn CORE

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pp. 249-278

After the Downstate campaign, the Young Turks waited for an opportune moment to launch their first full-scale attack against racial discrimination. The upcoming 1964–65 World’s Fair, which would take place in New York City, seemed ...

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Conclusion: “Brooklyn Stands with Selma”

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pp. 279-295

After the stall-in, Brooklyn CORE members struggled to find an action campaign. The Young Turks faded away from power. Isaiah Brunson disappeared from the organization. Oliver Leeds remembered that Brunson was ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 297-298

I am very grateful for support from the following groups of people: participants in oral history interviews, which became the foundation for this book’s research; the excellent teachers and mentors I had at Xavier High School, ...

Notes

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pp. 299-332

Bibliography

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pp. 333-345

Index

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pp. 347-353