Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. 2-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-2

In Lithuanian “Saturday School” at the Lithuanian Cultural Center in Southfield, high school students learned a poem, Cˇicˇinskas (pronounced “chi-CHIN-skas”), written by Maironis in 1907. Cˇicˇinskas is a prince eager for power in renaissance Lithuania. In order for Cˇicˇinskas to get his power he...

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Lithuanian History as a Background to Immigration

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pp. 3-6

To understand the variables impacting Lithuanian immigration to Michigan in the 1860s, one must understand the geopolitical realities of Lithuania in medieval Europe. Geographically, Lithuania has generally held its ethnogeographic boundaries since the year 1000. Without the port of Klaipėda...

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The First and Second Waves of Lithuanians in Michigan

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pp. 7-16

The first wave of Lithuanian immigrants came to the United States beginning in 1860. Th is wave ended in 1918, near the end of World War I, with the creation of the Lithuanian republic. The difference between the first and second waves of Lithuanians coming to the United States and Michigan is slight. Th e emigrating agent changed from tsarist Russian to independent...

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Religion and Culture in the First and Second Waves

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pp. 17-38

Because of the low economic status of Lithuanians, they centered their social lives on the one thing they knew: culture. Lithuanian culture was focused on the Roman Catholic Church. If you go to Lithuania, the old Roman Catholic Churches are in the center of town. The local parish gave a sense of unity and, in many cases, defiance against the tsarist regime. The...

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Lithuanians and Sports

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pp. 39-44

The first wave of Lithuanians coming to Michigan in the late 1800s did not have a concept of sports. In their cultural history, Lithuanians did not have sports as we know them today. No wonder the first wave of Lithuanian immigrants did not organize sports teams or worry about sports prowess. Survival on the farm in the old country and survival in the city in the new...

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The Third and Fourth Waves of Lithuanian Immigration to Michigan

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pp. 45-56

The third wave of Lithuanian immigration came immediately after the upheaval of World War II. This new wave of Lithuanians had no way to reach the United States while the destroying armies of the Allies and Axis crisscrossed Europe. Between the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 and the Refugee Act of 1953, 30,300 Lithuanians immigrated to the United States.60 Three...

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Politics

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pp. 57-62

The ultimate difference between the first two waves of Lithuanian immigration and the third wave was politics. As mentioned before, the more educated and politically aware third-wave immigrants worked relentlessly to use the political system to make American politicians understand the plight of Lithuania. Th is third wave was overwhelmingly Republican and for one...

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The Fourth Wave

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pp. 63-64

The fourth wave of immigration to Michigan concerns those Lithuanians who left Soviet controlled Lithuania between the end of the displaced persons immigration in 1953 and the renewal of independence in 1991. No statistics could be found showing the number of Lithuanians who moved to Michigan during this time. The author remembers a couple of people who...

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The Fifth Wave of Immigration and Today

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pp. 65-70

On March 11, 1990, the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic declared its independence from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Recognition was not forthcoming from the USSR or the rest of the world. Th e failed Soviet coup in August 1991 led to Western recognition and finally a Soviet ratification of independence in September 1991. Lithuania S.S.R. was now the...

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The Union Pier Experience

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pp. 71-76

The cultural dissonance between the third and fifth immigrant waves has resulted in a cooperative development in one Michigan community. Union Pier, on the far southern end of Lake Michigan, has been home to a small Lithuanian community since the late 1950s that has gone through patterns of growth and decline. Today the Union Pier Lithuanian community...

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The Future of Lithuanians in Michigan

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pp. 77-78

The Lithuanian community in Michigan will survive in Detroit for some time to come, as long as economic opportunity and Lithuanian priests exist. Some older Lithuanian immigrants have their doubts, however. One older immigrant believes that Lithuanians in Detroit will not last much longer than 2015. Th is person’s prophecy is based on the prediction that the...

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Conclusion

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pp. 79-80

Lithuanians have been a part of the Michigan historical landscape since they first arrived in the 1870s. They may have been few in number compared to other ethnic groups, but Lithuanians survived in Michigan and made an impact in all areas of the state. Lithuanians logged, mined, farmed, and built furniture and cars. They built Lithuanian neighborhoods and parishes...

Appendix 1. Lithuanian Recipes

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pp. 81-82

Appendix 2. Lithuanian Organizations

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pp. 83-84

Notes

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pp. 85-90

For Further Reference

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pp. 91-96

Index

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pp. 97-102