Frontmatter

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Series Information

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 2-2

Title Page

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 3-3

Copyright Page

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 4-4

Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 5-6

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-8

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-12

My heartfelt gratitude goes out to John Colarusso for his enthusiastic support of my work on the Circassians and for his expertise on the Circassian language. I’m deeply indebted to Ali Berzek, who compiled the archival materials used in this study, and Zack Barsik, who provided me not only with those materials...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-8

On May 20, 2011, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution that labeled as genocide the “preplanned” mass killing of Circassians by the Russian Imperial Army in the 1860s. The resolution also stated that those who survived but were driven from their homeland and their descendants should be recognized as refugees...

read more

1. "The Plague was Our Ally "

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 9-31

In June 1808 Izmail-Bey Atazhukin, a Kabardian nobleman and colonel in the Russian Imperial Army, asked for permission to cross a quarantine line from Fort Konstantinovskaya into Kabardia with a shipment of desperately needed salt. Technically, anyone who wanted to cross the line was supposed to undergo a twenty-day...

read more

2. A Pawn in the Great Game

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 32-53

The destruction of Kabardia remained hidden from the world. When Ermolov conducted the raids that nearly annihilated the Kabardians, not a single European newspaper took notice. As the European powers were vying for supremacy in a post-Napoleonic world, there was little interest in an obscure corner of the Russian Empire...

read more

3. From War to Genocide

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 54-75

In concluding his description of the final conquest and expulsion of the Circassians in the 1860s, Russian officer Ivan Drozdov tried to justify the wholesale death and destruction that his army brought upon them: “Mankind has rarely experienced such disasters and to such extremes, but only horror could have an effect...

read more

4. 1864

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 76-97

The final Russian assault on Circassia began at the beginning of November 1861.1 Estimating the remaining population of Circassia at two hundred thousand, the Russians assembled sixty-five combat battalions, twenty-five Cossack divisions, and one hundred cannons.2 Mortally afraid that the British would interfere...

read more

5. A Homeless Nation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 98-110

The death and disease that beset the Circassians on the Black Sea coast followed them to Anatolia. Impoverished and ill, the deportees quickly learned their ordeal was far from over. In December 1863, after only a handful had arrived, Russian consul in Trabzon A. N. Moshnin reported that the refugees were dying...

read more

6. Survival in Diaspora

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 111-130

In 1881 British captain Claude Conder arrived in Amman during a campaign against Druze tribesmen. The town had been uninhabited as recently as 1876, and Circassian migrants were just beginning to reclaim the ancient site of Philadelphia.1 Conder described the physical and psychological damage...

read more

7. Those Who Stayed Behind

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 131-148

In 1863 military consul to the Russian Embassy in Istanbul F. A. Frankini submitted several proposals for “the establishment of peace” in the western Caucasus to War Minister Milyutin. To Frankini’s suggestion that the Circassians be given hereditary rights to their land as Alexander had promised, Milyutin replied...

read more

8. The Road to Sochi

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 149-170

With these words Russian president Vladimir Putin unwittingly declared war on the Circassian people. His implication that the ancient Greeks were the first inhabitants at Sochi struck Circassians worldwide as the most blatant and public attempt yet to erase their history. Most likely, Putin believed linking the Prometheus legend...

read more

Epilogue: The Cherkesov Affair

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 171-178

In the early morning of December 6, 2010, a group of young Russian men got into a fight with a few young men from the Caucasus. During the clash Yegor Sviridov, a Russian, was shot and killed. An investigation identified Aslan Cherkesov, a twenty-six-year-old Circassian, as the trigger man. A drunken brawl ending in a homicide was really...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 179-201

Bibliography

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 203-213

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 215-218

About the Author

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 217-229