Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 1-4

Contents

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pp. 5-6

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Acknowledgments

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pp. vii-viii

The cultivation of this book has been a long and at times arduous process. In recognition of the process, there are many individuals who helped in the planting of ideas, the sowing of the research and writing, and the harvesting of the ...

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Introduction

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pp. 11-12

Throughout the twentieth century, the seeds of victory were sown on farms, vacant lots, in backyards, rooftops, and window boxes. Intentionally selected, meticulously planted, and carefully harvested, these seeds provided food in times of scarcity and a political ideological focus for ...

Part I. The First World War

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pp. 13-13

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1. Ladies of Leisure and Women of Action

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pp. 15-32

Across two continents amid the dawn of a new age of social change, the First World War called women over the top. The war called women to climb out of the parapet of the protective trenches of leisure and over the top into a world of political and social service. Like men on a battlefield, ...

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2. The Land Girls

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pp. 33-62

Mary Lees needed to get out of the house. Just shy of her eighteenth birthday, she was one of 23,000 English land girls and the 15,000 American farmerettes who left the familiarity of their homes to aid their countries and seek adventure. For many urban women, getting out of the ...

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3. Sowing the Seeds of Victory

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pp. 63-90

Though women for centuries cultivated gardens for both pleasure and subsistence, during the First World War cultivation took on a patriotic meaning for the women of England and the United States. Gardening in wartime transformed cultivation from an aesthetic or culinary practice to a practice symbolic of the gardener’s level of patriotism and support ...

Part II. The Second World War

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pp. 91-91

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4. The Aftermath of War: Gender and Agriculture in the Interwar Years

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pp. 93-105

The “seeds of reform” planted by international women’s leaders sprouted in the years after the First World War. Though the outcomes varied from the expectations of the reformers, a harvest of new perspectives on women’s roles proceeded in the years following the Treaty of Versailles. In the initial years following the war, women in Great Britain and the United States ...

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5. “A Call to Farms”

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pp. 106-130

For Joan Snell ing, life as a British “land girl” during the Second World War brought adventure, romance, and farming experiences she never forgot. Born in London in 1922, Joan learned of the outbreak of war while on holiday with her family in Norfolk. Fearing the air raids expected upon the urban areas of the country, her family ...

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6. Freedom from Want: The Role of the Victory Garden in the Second World War

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pp. 131-161

Freedom from want” was not only a powerful political message by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, it was also an ideology that the people of both England and the United States strove to adopt during the Second World War. After decades of hunger and economic depression, the nations looked to increased and improved food production as an answer to strife and ...

Part III. Cultivation and Cultural Transcendence

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pp. 163-163

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7. The Women’s Land Army, Victory Gardens, and Cultural Transcendence

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pp. 165-182

When the British and American people who served in the Women’s Land Armies (WLAs) or who cultivated victory gardens during the world wars recalled their experiences, they often used words like “change,” “growth,” and “remembrance.”1 What these words meant ...

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Epilogue: Garden as Metaphor

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pp. 183-187

Never is the phrase “actions speak louder than words” more appropriate than when words go unrecognized. From the lens of governmental wartime agencies across the globe during the first half of the twentieth century, women had an image, but no voice. Nations not only used the image ...

Notes

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pp. 189-207

Bibliography

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pp. 209-219

Index

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pp. 221-230