Cover, Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 1-7

Contents

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pp. vii-9

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Preface

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pp. ix-xviii

REBELS AT THE BAR describes the life stories of a small group of nineteenth-century women who became the first female attorneys in the In 1865, at the conclusion of the American Civil War, the idea of equal rights found new expression. In the optimistic decade that fol-lowed, a handful of women acted on their aspirations to become law...

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1. The Women’s War

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pp. 1-11

ON JUNE 18, 1860, Reverend Theophilus Packard committed his wife Elizabeth to the Illinois Hospital for the Insane. A staunch Calvinist, Theophilus held that his wife’s refusal to accept the orthodoxy of his...

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2. White Knights and Legal Knaves

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pp. 12-25

WHEN, AFTER THE CIVIL WAR , a few brave women insisted upon the opportunity to become lawyers, they entered a profession with a decidedly mixed reputation, one populated solely by male practitioners who were responsible for the nature...

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3. Myra Bradwell: The Supreme Court Says No

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pp. 26-43

IN 1894, WHEN IT MATTERED VERY LITTLE, the men of the Illinois State Bar Association showered praise on Myra Bradwell. A quarter of a century before she had sought their professional favor and many of them had...

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4. Lavinia Goodell: “A Sweeping Revolution of Social Order”

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pp. 44-73

LAVINIA GOODELL , BORN IN 1839, learned about the power of law at an early age. Slavery and temperance were everyday topics of conversation at her parents’ dinner table. By the age of nineteen Lavinia imagined law as a profession through which she could do good and...

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5. Belva A. Lockwood: The First Woman Member of the U.S. Supreme Court Bar

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pp. 74-103

BELVA LOCKWOOD, like Lavinia Goodell, dreamed of a life in law long before she could make that ambition a reality. Lockwood was the second child, born October 24, 1839, of Hannah and Lewis J. Bennett, farmers who eked out a modest living...

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6. Clara Foltz’s Story: Breaking Barriers in the West

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pp. 104-133

IF BELVA LOCKWOOD was restless and ambitious, persistently seeking opportunities and trying new things, Clara Shortridge Foltz was even more so. Ardent in all that she pursued, Foltz led a life that reads like ...

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7. Not Everyone Is Bold: Mary Hall and Catharine Waugh McCulloch in Conversation

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pp. 134-155

Petticoats instead of breeches. . . . Brains and mentality are [often] measured by the formation of the wearing apparel. This will not do for an en-lightened and a leading state like our own. We must admit feminine law-every female, or male, lawyer sought the light and fight of trial work. The back office appealed to many attorneys, including Mary Hall, who ...

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8. Lelia Robinson and Mary Greene: Two Women from Boston University School of Law

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pp. 156-184

THEY GAVE COMFORT to one another, Lelia Robinson and Mary Greene, in 1888 the only two women practicing law in Boston. Greene said of their friendship, “I think it is helpful to both of us to feel that neither is ‘the only woman lawyer...

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9. Law as a Woman’s Enterprise

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pp. 185-206

FIRST-GENERATION WOMEN ATTORNEYS trained in the law in order to stretch themselves intellectually and to expand what were, otherwise, limited economic opportunities. Women attorneys also valued law as a tool...

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Epilogue

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pp. 207-212

FOUR WOMEN HAVE now served as an associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Sandra Day O’Connor, the first of these justices, was not appointed until 1981. For a short while after O’Connor...

Notes

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pp. 213-248

Select Bibliography

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pp. 249-254

Index

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pp. 255-267

About the Author

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pp. 268-287