Cover

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pp. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

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Preface

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pp. 5-8

We first want to thank Willie Nelson for his kindness in allowing us to use his likeness on the cover. Our friend Carl Cornelius, mayor of Carl’s Corner and friend of Willie’s, served as a go-between, arranging the permission for us to use Willie’s image on the cover. We thank both Willie and Carl for their enthusiasm for this project. ...

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Enduring Icons That Are Part of Texas

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pp. 8-9

Nelson’s music has been the soundtrack to my life, beginning with memories of my uncles sitting around our living room in the 1950s playing and singing “Hello Walls,” and continuing through my college days in Austin in the 1970s with the rise of redneck rock and outlaw country, both of which Nelson instigated. ...

Table of Contents

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pp. 10-14

State Profile

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pp. 15-17

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State Flags and Symbols

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pp. 18-24

The following information about historic Texas flags, the current flag, and other Texas symbols may be supplemented by information from the Texas State Library & Archives in Austin. (On the web: www. texasalmanac.com/topics/flags-symbols and www. tsl.state.tx.us/ref/abouttx/index.html#flags) ...

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History

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pp. 25-66

In a reflective mood, on Aug. 30, 1914, W.D. McDonald wrote a long letter to the Trenton Tribune, his old hometown newspaper in Fannin County. He noted it had been 54 years that month since his honorable discharge from Company C, First U.S. Cavalry, and 52 years since he enlisted in the Confederate Army to fight against some of the same men with whom he had once chased hostile Indians. ...

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Environment

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pp. 67-124

Texas occupies about 7 percent of the total water and land area of the United States. Second in size among the states, Texas has a land and water area of 268,596 square miles, as compared with Alaska’s 665,384 square miles, according to the United States Bureau of the Census. California, the third-largest state, has 163,695 square miles. ...

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Weather

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pp. 125-151

March 25: With hail ranging from quarter to teacup size, a thunderstorm pummeled the Austin area. In Austin’s history, the top three most destructive hailstorms have occurred on March 25 (1993, 2005, 2009). This storm, the most costly, was estimated at $160 million in damage. ...

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Calendar

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pp. 152-164

The subsequent calendars were calculated principally from data on the U.S. Naval Observatory’s website (http://www.usno.navy.mil/USNO) and from its publications Astronomical Phenomena for 2012 and Astronomical Phenomena for 2013. ...

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Recreation

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pp. 165-194

Texas’ diverse system of state parks and historic sites offers contrasting attractions — mountains and canyons, arid deserts and lush forests, spring-fed streams, sandy dunes, saltwater surf and fascinating historic sites. ...

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Sports

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pp. 195-230

The University Interscholastic League, which governs literary and athletic competition among schools in Texas, was organized in 1910 as a division of the University of Texas extension service. Initially, it sponsored forensic competition. ...

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Counties

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pp. 231-416

These pages describe Texas’ 254 counties and hundreds of towns. Descriptions are based on reports from chambers of commerce, the Texas Cooperative Extension, federal and state agencies, the New Handbook of Texas and other sources. Consult the index for other county information. ...

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Population

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pp. 417-448

The population of Texas on April 1, 2010, was 25,145,561 according to the U.S. Census, an increase of 4,293,741 persons from the 2000 census. That new count makes it the second largest state after California, which has a popultion of 37,253, 956. ...

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Election

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pp. 449-466

An overwhelming Republican majority influenced by the grassroots tea party movement dominated the 82nd Legislature, resulting in a no tax-increase budget with record spending cuts and a conservative social issues agenda. ...

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Government

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pp. 467-562

Richard Ellis, president of the convention, appointed a committee of five to write the declaration for submission to the convention. However, there is much evidence that George C. Childress, one of the members, wrote the document with little or no help from the other members. Childress is therefore generally accepted as the author. ...

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Culture and the Arts

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pp. 563-575

The commercial sector encompasses Texas-based profit-making businesses including commercial recording artists, nightclubs, record companies, private galleries, assorted boutiques that carry fine art collectibles and private dance and music halls. ...

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Health and Science

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pp. 576-585

Heart disease and cancer remained the major causes of death in 2008, the latest year for which statistical breakdowns were available from the Bureau of Vital Statistics, Department of State Health Services. ...

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Education

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pp. 586-602

Enrollment in Texas public schools reached a peak of 4,933,617 students in 2010–2011, according to the Texas Education Agency. That is an increase of almost 338,675 students over the last four years; enrollment was 4,594,942 in 2006–2007. ...

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Business

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pp. 603-652

The Texas economy, which joined the nation in recession in fiscal 2009, began adding jobs again at the beginning of fiscal 2010. Recovery from the nation’s worst recession since World War II has been lukewarm compared to other economic recoveries. ...

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Transportation

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pp. 653-669

Texans drove more than 21.5 million motor vehicles in 2010 over 300,000 miles of roadways, including city- and county-maintained roads. That driving is calculated to have included more than 464 million miles driven daily on the 192,000 miles of state-maintained highways alone. ...

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Agriculture

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pp. 670-687

The number and nature of farms have changed over time. The number of farms in Texas has decreased from 420,000 in 1940 to 247,500 in 2010, with an average size of 527 acres. Average value per farm of all farm assets, including land and buildings, has increased from $20,100 in 1950 to $816,646 in 2009. ...

Appendix

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pp. 688-705

Index

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pp. 706-736