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Confronting America
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Fierce and cunning in their Cold War anti-American propaganda, the French and Italian Communists identified capitalist oppression with American domination. Pressed by this resilient internal opposition from within two core Western allies, the United States did not limit itself to tactical countermeasures. It also constantly reassessed the very meaning of American liberal capitalist culture and ideology. CONFRONTING AMERICA looks not only at Italian and French Communist resistance to Americanization, but also at an America that confronted itself, its own foreign policy, social structure, and overall culture. This psychological impact was particularly intense because the French and Italian Communist parties (PCF and PCI) were deeply rooted in Western culture, and, given their strength, they could not be dismissed simply as anomalies. At crucial junctures, America’s struggle with Western European Communism took on the same universal and sometimes apocalyptic connotations as its conflict with the Soviet Union. Using new archival evidence from Communist archives in France and Italy, as well as repositories in the US, this study emphasizes the interconnection of political, economic, and diplomatic aspects with cultural and ideological constructs.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover and Front Matter
  2. pp. 1-5
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  1. Contents and Illustrations
  2. pp. 6-7
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  1. Acknowledgments
  2. pp. vii-ix
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  1. Abbreviations
  2. pp. x-xii
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  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. pp. 1-12
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  1. 1. THE COMMUNISTS AND NATIONAL REBIRTH IN FRANCE AND ITALY, 1944–1946
  2. pp. 13-52
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  1. 2. CONFRONTING THE COMMUNISTS IN GOVERNMENT: The American Response, 1944–1947
  2. pp. 53-86
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  1. 3. POLARIZED CONFRONTATION: U.S. Aid and Propaganda versus Cominform in France and Italy, 1947–1950
  2. pp. 87-121
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  1. 4. COMMUNIST PEACE CAMPAIGNS AND AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE, 1948–1955
  2. pp. 122-156
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  1. 5. THE CULTURAL COLD WAR AT ITS PEAK: Mass Culture and Intellectuals, 1948–1956
  2. pp. 157-200
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  1. 6. DIPLOMATIC MANEUVERING: Communist and American Interplay of Foreign and Domestic Policies during the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations
  2. pp. 201-243
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  1. 7. REDEFINING OPPRESSION: The 1960s, from Affluence to Youth Protest
  2. pp. 244-301
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  1. 8. REDEFINING INTERDEPENDENCE: The Eurocommunism of the 1970s and the U.S. Response
  2. pp. 302-346
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  1. EPILOGUE: Cultural and Political Decline
  2. pp. 347-381
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  1. CONCLUSION
  2. pp. 382-397
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  1. Notes
  2. pp. 399-472
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  1. Bibliography
  2. pp. 473-507
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  1. Index
  2. pp. 509-533
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