Cover

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pp. 1-1

Frontmatter

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-x

Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xvi

Acronyms and Abbreviations

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pp. xvii-xx

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Introduction

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pp. 1-12

In 1957 Texas legislators drafted a plethora of segregationist legislation designed to circumvent the Brown v. Board of Education decision outlawing school segregation. Mexican American and African American civil rights...

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1 Advancing the Cause of Democracy: The Origins of Protest in the Long Civil Rights Movement

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pp. 13-38

On a warm Monday night in May 1950, a handful of dynamite easily destroyed Robert and Marie Shelton’s American dream. The bomb ripped through the African American couple’s newly purchased home in South Dallas, demolishing...

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2 Sleeping on Another Man’s Wounds: The Battle for Integrated Schools in the 1950s

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pp. 39-71

In the mid-1950s, G.I. Forum national chairman Hector García dispatched San Antonio county commissioner Albert Peña Jr. to investigate the operation of a segregated Mexican school in the small South Texas town of Lytle...

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3 Nothing but Victory Can Stop Us: Direct Action and Political Action in the Early 1960s

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pp. 72-101

In March 1960 black Texans began sit-in protests at segregated lunch counters and other public facilities. Students, ministers, lawyers, young, old, men, and women participated in the demonstrations. They followed the example...

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4 Venceremos: The Evolution of Civil Rights in the Mid-1960s

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pp. 102-129

In August 1967 Father Antonio Gonzalez of the Galveston-Houston Archdiocese described himself as the “Martin Luther King of the Mexicans.” Speaking at a meeting of PASO, the priest detailed his own activism and commended “some of the nation’s rioters” in Houston...

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5 Am I My Brother’s Keeper?: Ecumenical Activism in the Lone Star State

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pp. 130-153

In the summer of 1964, Houston minister Wallace B. “Bud” Poteat established the Ecumenical Fellowship (EF) to eradicate social problems and racism in the Bayou City. He hoped to accomplish this goal by taking advantage of local and national antipoverty programs...

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6 The Day of Nonviolence Is Past: The Era of Brown Power and Black Power in Texas

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pp. 154-194

In a 1969 speech in San Antonio, activist José Angel Gutiérrez told a group of Chicanos: “We have got to eliminate the gringo, and what I mean by that is if the worst comes to worst we have got to kill him.” Gutiérrez’s words caused...

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7 Pawns, Puppets, and Scapegoats: School Desegregation in the Late 1960s and Early 1970s

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pp. 195-223

In 1970 the Houston Independent School District (HISD) implemented a new integration plan to comply with the Brown v. Board of Education decision. This plan integrated only African American and Mexican American schools, which Chicanos and blacks viewed...

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Conclusion

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pp. 224-240

The 2001 mayoral race in Houston pitted incumbent Democratic mayor Lee P. Brown against Republican challenger and Houston City Council member Orlando Sánchez. Mayor Brown, an African American political wunderkind...

Notes

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pp. 241-304

Bibliography

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pp. 305-332

Index

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pp. 333-347