Cover

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pp. 1-3

Title

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pp. 4-4

Copyright

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pp. 5-7

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Note on Transliteration

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pp. ix-x

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Introduction

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pp. 1-20

This book deals with the changing use of clan-based violence against civilians as a technology of power in the Somali civil war (1978–present). At its center is what I consider the violence of the “key shift,”1 activated by politico-military leaders in the course of the armed uprising that culminated in the expulsion of President Maxamed Siyaad Barre on January 26, 1991. ...

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1. Speaking the Unspeakable: Somali Poets and Novelists on Civil War Violence

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pp. 21-70

The research on which this book is based began as a study of Somali popular songs and poetry as mediations of civil war violence. This is a continuation of my earlier work on Somali popular songs of the nationalist era, a genre that, as I have argued elsewhere, proved to be iconic for this era’s will to modernity ...

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2. Historical Background to the Violence of State Collapse

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pp. 71-130

Scholarly analyses of violence, including this study, also constitute a type of mediation and a genre with its own rules, expectations, and pitfalls. Many scholars who have taken violence as their subject of study have been keenly aware that violence is an especially challenging, perhaps even distinctive subject matter ...

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3. Clan Cleansing in Mogadishu and Beyond

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pp. 131-191

From mid-December 1990 on, the number of foreigners who remained in Mogadishu dwindled.1 The U.S. embassy, where foreign nationals of many backgrounds toward the end had taken refuge, was evacuated on January 5, 1991, the Italian embassy on January 12. Both evacuations involved dramatic rescue actions by land, sea, and air.2 ...

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4. The Why and How of Clan Cleansing: Political Objectives and Discursive Means

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pp. 192-240

The chapters above have traced the changing use of large-scale clan-based violence against civilians as a political tool in the hands of politico-military leaders at three historical moments, namely during the Barre regime, at the moment of its collapse, and during the factional militia warfare in its wake. ...

Time-Line of Major Events

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pp. 241-242

Notes

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pp. 243-278

Glossary

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pp. 279-282

Bibliography

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pp. 283-296

Name Index

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pp. 297-301

Subject Index

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pp. 302-304

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Acknowledgments

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pp. 305-308

A multiyear project like this accumulates many debts of gratitude. In Addis Ababa, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Wafa Neguede (with Mounay and Ato Sbhat) not only for opening her home to me but also for her friendship, wisdom, inspiration, and encouragement. Thank you Amira and Akram for your friendship, hospitality, and encouragement. ...