Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xii

Religion and politics, church and state, uniformity and dissent: commingling them in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries created a maze that the English had difficulty traversing. Consider the example of Tobie Mathew. In 1608 he was incarcerated in the Fleet. He petitioned the king’s Privy Council for his release. A recent convert

A Note on Spelling and Dates

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p. xiii

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Introduction: “A man is not English who gives first allegiance elsewhere”: Reconciling National and Religious Loyalties in an Age of Uniformity

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pp. 1-11

In early modern England, the state assumed that secular and religious loyalties were indistinguishable. To be English in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries meant regular worship in the Church of England. To be English and Catholic raised a troubling question regarding civic loyalty: did those who failed to conform in religion forfeit...

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1 “There should be a correspondence betwixt the Church and the State”: Uniformity, the Penal Legislation, and the Early Stuarts

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pp. 12-27

Substantial theological differences separated English Catholics and Protestants. However, they stood as one when it came to uniformity and the magistrate’s obligation to protect the true religion. Public tensions between them usually came down to questions of political loyalty. Could a man or a woman serve two masters, a pope in Rome and...

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2 “Conformitie to the form of service of God now established”: Building a Career at Court (1580–1620)

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pp. 28-48

From his birth George Calvert had binding ties with the Catholic community. He was born into an environment that openly resisted the evolving state church. A decade earlier, Sir Thomas Gargrave had described Richmondshire in Yorkshire as an area where all the gentlemen were “evil in religion,” that is, Roman Catholic.1 The records reveal...

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3 “But by God’s help many have been lifted out of the mire of corruption”: George Calvert’s Conversion and Resignation (1621–1625)

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pp. 49-76

In the five years following his appointment as secretary, Calvert enjoyed his greatest successes and endured his foremost political—and religious—trials. His public experiences, along with profound changes in his personal circumstances, helped to forge the radical concepts he implemented later in his colonial enterprises. Two public activities...

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4 “Upon this new shuffle of the packe”: The Catholic Lord Baltimore in Ireland and Newfoundland (1625–1629)

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pp. 77-103

From the wreck of his career as a prominent government official emerged a new, bolder George Calvert: the capitalist and Catholic colonizer. The cautious, conforming courtier gave way to a daring man who challenged some of his culture’s most cherished political and religious concepts. In retiring from court and openly embracing...

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5 “If your Majesty will please to grant me a precinct of land with such priviledges as the king your father my gracious Master was pleased to graunt me”: Securing the Charter (1629–1632)

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pp. 104-128

Avalon’s disintegration was Maryland’s genesis. By “deare bought experience,” the first Lord Baltimore learned some of the hard lessons of his predecessors, who also found the winter “in this woefull land” beyond endurance. Starting over would not be easy for a man whose futile enterprise had sapped his energy and his fortune. To begin...

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6 “Such a designe when rightly understood will not want undertakers”: Selling Lord Baltimore’s Vision (1632–1638)

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pp. 129-151

The historical shadow cast by his father obscures the critical role played by Cecil Calvert. The elder Calvert rose to prominence in the government of James I and established the family fortune. He made the initial overseas investments. He secured a favorable charter for the Avalon colony. He financed the Newfoundland enterprise, largely from....

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7 “With free liberty of religion”: The Calvert Model for Church-State Relations (1633–1655)

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pp. 169-208

Careful planning expedited establishment of a colony on a firm foundation, and early reports gave Baltimore cause for hope. Under his subordinates, mainly relatives or family associates, the immigrants established an outpost along St. George’s River. As the proprietor instructed, the leaders sought and achieved amiable relations with...

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8 “The People there cannot subsist & continue in peace and safety without som good Government”: A Second Testing of Religious Freedom (1653–1676)

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pp. 209-249

The 1649 Act concerning Religion failed to achieve the stable body politic that Lord Baltimore desperately desired. His troubles accelerated rapidly at home and in America after its passage. In England, as an open Catholic, he now incurred the financial penalties imposed on Catholics by the new radical Protestant authorities. The...

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9 “Scandalous and offensive to the Government”: The “Popish Chappel” at St. Mary’s City and the End of Religious Freedom (1676–1705)

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pp. 250-267

Charles Calvert, the third Lord Baltimore, inherited a prospering and relatively stable colony, or so it seemed. The economy was healthier in the early 1660s than contemporary reports suggested, and a strong recovery began in 1668. The Chesapeake economy experienced a genuine boom in the late 1670s. No one knew the colony better...

Abbreviations and Frequently Cited Works

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pp. 268-271

Notes

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pp. 272-294

Essay on Sources

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pp. 295-308

Index

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pp. 309-319