Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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CONTENTS

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p. v

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PREFACE

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pp. vii-x

At first, when the pioneers of rocketry realized that people could actually venture into space, the stages for the exploration of this new frontier seemed fairly clear. Prophets of space exploration drew up plans for rocket planes that could carry people...

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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pp. xi -xii

Completion of this book would not have been possible without the support of the NASA History Office. Many of the documents cited in this book were available in the archives of the NASA History Office when my research began; more were added as a result of NASA's multifaceted effort to document...

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Introduction The Vision

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pp. 1-10

James M. Beggs, the sixth administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, looked out at his audience and told a story. A professor at one of America's leading business schools, Beggs recalled, once gave his students a special assignment. The professor asked the students to summarize the most outstanding characteristics of American society. They should do...

PART I

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1. The Race (Spring 1961)

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pp. 13-21

"Do we have a chance of beating the Soviets by putting a laboratory in space?," John F. Kennedy, President of the United States, asked in the spring of 1961. NASA executives had proposed the construction of a research laboratory orbiting the earth as an "intermediate step toward the establishment of a permanent...

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2. One New Initiative (January 5, 1972)

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pp. 22-33

Little more than a decade later, Richard Milhous Nixon, the thirtyseventh President of the United States, sat at the desk in his California home, prepared to approve America's second major initiative in space. NASA Administrator James Fletcher and his deputy, George Low, had driven south from the small seaside town of San Clemente that morning to meet with Nixon and...

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3. Beggs (June 17, 1981)

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pp. 34-41

James Beggs strode up the steps of the Old Senate Office Building. When he had visited the capitol thirty-seven years earlier, as a cadet at the U.S. Naval Academy in nearby Annapolis, this had been the main office building on the Senate side of Capitol Hill. Ninety-six senators and their personal aides had fit more or less comfortably into one large building and an annex back then...

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4. The Team (May 20, 1982)

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pp. 42-52

"When I heard that Jim Beggs was coming back to NASA," John Hodge said in an easy-going way, his British accent still audible, "I [wrote] to him and said, 'Hey, if you've got a job over there, I'd like to come.' '" Hodge missed his work with NASA. He had labored in the U.S. Department of Transportation for ten years, hanging on as funds for systems engineering...

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5. Independence Day (July 4, 1982)

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pp. 53-62

"When I heard that Jim Beggs was coming back to NASA," John Hodge said in an easy-going way, his British accent still audible, "I [wrote] to him and said, 'Hey, if you've got a job over there, I'd like to come.' '" Hodge missed his work with NASA. He had labored in the U.S. Department of Transportation for ten years, hanging on as funds for systems engineering...

PART II

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6. Budget Strategy

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pp. 65-67

The speech at Edwards Air Force Base squashed whatever hope the bearers of the vision possessed that President Reagan would make an Apollo-type commitment to the space station. It provided fresh evidence that NASA officials would not be able to escape the slow grind of incremental politics...

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7. Wheels, Cans, and Modules

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pp. 68-74

NASA officials did not want to debate space station design, because they had no design to debate. So many versions of the space station had been developed in the decades since the idea first appeared that no one could point authoritatively to one model and say, here it is. So fuzzy was the definition of space station that...

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8. Configurations

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pp. 75-80

As of 1982, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center favored what they called the "space platform" design, starting with open-faced pallets built to hold a few scientific experiments and adding on modules until people could live there as well. It was a modest proposal, cheap to start, and was calculated...

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9. The First Move

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pp. 81-90

As soon as they took their story on the road, the leaders of NASA's Space Station Task Force learned how much of a handicap the internal disagreements over design created. Telling the space station story was part of the Task Force job. Along with Jim Beggs, Hans Mark, Philip Culbertson, and other NASA executives...

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10. How to Organize a Task Force

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pp. 91-98

When they began their work, the members of the Space Station Task Force had little trouble making decisions. As the Task Force moved through its third month of operation in August 1982, it employed fewer than two dozen people, including clerks and secretaries, a small dot on the face of the federal administrative...

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11. International Participation

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pp. 99-107

"I guess that's a memory jogger that will stay with me for a little while," said Dr. Karl Doetsch, the assistant director of the Canadian space program, remembering how the meeting to consider international participation on the U.S. space station ended. "A meeting was called by Mr. Pedersen," Doetsch explained. As Director of the International...

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12. Technology

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pp. 108-117

"At some point in time we are going to do a manned Mars mission," said Danny Herman, the Task Force leader who would eventually become director of engineering for the space station program. "The space station is going to be in effect a test bed to evaluate what are the major issues before we can seriously...

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13. Budget Wars

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pp. 118-124

Following their June 1982 meeting, the leaders of the Space Station Technology Steering Committee met with Jim Beggs and laid out the conclusions the group had reached. Of the $107 million that NASA planned to spend on space technology in the upcoming year, $30 million supported the space...

PART III

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14. Positions

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pp. 127-134

NASA officials had tried to get the space station approved many different ways and had failed each time. They had failed to get the space station approved in 1969 by presenting it as part of their long-range plan. They had failed to entice President Reagan into making a quick, Apollo-style commitment. They had...

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15. The White House

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pp. 135-144

Observers of the American presidency tell a time-honored anecdote about President Abraham Lincoln, who, as the story goes, issued a decision in the face of the unanimous opposition of his cabinet. Having called for a vote at a cabinet...

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16. The Rabbit in the Hat

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pp. 145-156

"Can I have the first viewgraph?" John Hodge asked as the lights went down. As director of NASA's Space Station Task Force and now head of the SIG (Space) working group, Hodge repeated the space station story frequently during the spring and summer of 1983. This presentation, made before the members...

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17. SIG (Space)

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pp. 157-168

John Hodge looked at the people seated around the table in what he called NASA's wire room, also known as the cage. Gil Rye had told Hodge and the members of the SIG (Space) working group to produce a report by the first week of July 1983, and Hodge had assembled the group to finish the...

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18. The Number

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pp. 169-176

As NASA officials searched for a method to put the space station proposal before President Reagan, they came under increasing pressure to make a public commitment on a very sticky issue. They came under pressure to tell the parties to the decision precisely what a space station would cost. To some people, calculating the cost of the space station seemed like a fairly straightforward...

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19. Reagan

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pp. 177-186

The President's budget director, David Stockman, opposed NASA's proposal for a permanently occupied space station. The President's science adviser, George Keyworth, opposed it. Ronald Reagan's long-time associate and Secretary of Defense, Caspar Weinberger, opposed it and kept insisting that NASA...

PART IV

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20. Congress

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pp. 189-196

"Mr. Speaker," Doorkeeper James T. Malloy cried on the twenty-fifth of January 1984, "the President of the United States." Ronald Reagan, the fortieth president under the nation's 197-year-old Constitution, worked his way toward the three-tiered podium of the House of Representatives where House Speaker...

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21. Momentum

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pp. 197-203

Among the potential clientele for the U.S. space station, few were as potent as the international partners. The foreign allies rarely testified on Capitol Hill, and lawmakers only occasionally asked questions about them. Nonetheless, they were a very important factor in NASA's overall effort to win congressional...

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22. Management

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pp. 204-212

In building support for the space station program, NASA executives had to maintain an additional, less glamorous type of momentum. They had to maintain enthusiasm for the project among their own employees. The program planners at NASA headquarters realized that they would be unable to do this unless...

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23. Congress II

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pp. 213-223

Without much debate, Congress approved legislation authorizing NASA to start work on the space station. Authorization of the space station, however, only started the legislative battle. Congress could kill what it had authorized by not appropriating the money to fund it. If opponents of NASA's space station...

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AFTERWORD: POLITICS, BUREAUCRACY, AND PUBLIC POLICY

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pp. 22-236

In spite of the lack of political consensus about the future of the U.S. space program, and in spite of the large federal budget deficit, NASA officials were able to get a space station approved in 1984. Official approval, however, did not remove the space station issue from the political arena. The space..

NOTES

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pp. 237-274

PHOTO CREDITS

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pp. 275-276

INDEX

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pp. 277-286