Governing the Air
The Dynamics of Science, Policy, and Citizen Interaction
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: The MIT Press
Title Page, Copyright
As our understanding of environmental threats deepens and broadens, it is increasingly clear that many environmental issues cannot be understood, analyzed, or acted upon in a simple way. The multifaceted relationships between human beings, social and political institutions, and the physical environment...
More than 20 years ago, we started to investigate the role of expertise in environmental regulation and policymaking, and we have been involved in researching this topic ever since. With backgrounds as sociologists, we have worked...
Chapter 1. Transboundary Air Pollution Policy in Transition
Climate change , transboundary air pollution , urban air quality , greenhouse gases , sulfur dioxides , and fine particles — a cluster of related words is circulating in news reports, political discussions, and public debates. These words describe the importance of clean air for human health, a livable society, and a sustainable environment. But what is clean air, or, rather, what...
Part I: Policy and Institutions
Chapter 2. The Improving Effectiveness of CLRTAP: Due to a Clever Design?
This chapter identifies and discusses a “ top-five ” list of central obstacles to the improvement of regime effectiveness and related important institutional cures and techniques and subsequently applies this framework in an analysis of the Convention...
Chapter 3. Institutional Linkages and European Air Pollution Politics
Much contemporary air pollution politics and policymaking occur in institutionally dense settings involving a large set of actors interacting in complex webs of connections. Scholars and policymakers are paying a great deal of attention to characteristics and consequences of linkages among the growing number...
Chapter 4. Transboundary Science for Transnational Air Pollution Policies in Europe
The problem of air pollution has been at the center of most industrialized countries ’ environmental policymaking from early on. Damages to human health, buildings, crops, and forests through emissions of toxic gases and particles have raised political concerns since the nineteenth century and have been addressed in numerous...
Part II: Expertise and Learning
Chapter 5. Organized Science, Usable Knowledge, and Multilateral Environmental Governance
There is a widespread acceptance that effective multilateral environmental governance requires the involvement of environmental scientists ( Gore 1996 ). Although speaking truth to power has long been a major theme in political science and policy studies ( Wildavsky 1979 ), commentators are increasingly skeptical...
Chapter 6. Scientists Learn Not Only Science but Also Diplomacy: Learning Processes in the European Transboundary Air Pollution Regime
International environmental governance is so complex that its entirety cannot be properly envisaged from the beginning. Governance is therefore inherently a learning process and at the same time is one of the best arenas for studying such processes. Learning generally means the recognition and acceptance of information that can change the actors ’ motives and behavior. A rich collection...
Chapter 7. Fewer Boundaries and Less Certainty:The Role of Experts in European Air Policy
Scholars in the fi eld of science and technology studies (STS) often repeat the message that the relationship between science and society is unstable. Spurred by regulatory failures in dealing with problems such as “ mad cow disease ” (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and public criticism of genetically modifid organisms...
Chapter 8. Co-producing Policy-Relevant Science and Science-Based Policy: The Case of Regulating Ground-Level Ozone
Few environmental issues on the international political agenda are unsupported by a body of scientific research. It is virtually impossible for an environmental condition to be successfully transformed into a political problem without scientific support in the form of data and analysis. At the same time...
Part III: Citizens and Involvement
Chapter 9. Citizen Engagement with the Politics of Air Quality: Lessons for Social Theory, Science Studies, and Environmental Sociology
Air pollution is in many ways an exemplar of environmental problems. Pollution of the air from factory emissions, household heating, and vehicles is a very clear example of an externality. It is a burden imposed on others — often the general urban population — through the acts of individuals and companies who are not charged (or not charged much) for...
Chapter 10. Framing Air Pollution and Health Problems: How to Include Stakeholder Perspectives?
The interface between science, policy, and society has been the topic of study of a whole body of political science and social studies of science literature (see also Lidskog and Sundqvist, chaps. 1 and 12 in this volume, for a broader discussion). Social scientists do not arrive at an unequivocal view on the science – policy – society interface,...
Chapter 11. Governance of Air Quality and Stakeholder Engagement: Lessons and Experience from International Cases
This chapter is about stakeholder engagement in the governance and management of air pollution control at several levels of governance: the realm of strategic policy formulation, translation of that strategic policy into policy measures, implementation of these policy measures, and policy evaluation...
Part IV: Environmental Governance and Research
Chapter 12. Science–Policy–Citizen Dynamics in International Environmental Governance
This book focuses on the regulatory regime for measuring, sorting, and controlling airborne substances harmful to the environment and public health. In this regime, actors, instruments, practices, and ideas are drawn together to create clean air. By developing norms, rules, and knowledge, actors are expected to reduce emissions...