Cover

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Frontmatter

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Title Page

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p. iii

Copyright Page

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p. iv

Table of Contents

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p. vii

List of Illustrations

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p. viii

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Preface

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pp. ix-xi

From the swirling waters of the rapids at Sault Ste. Marie to the St. Clair River delta that gives rise to Walpole Island, the Lake Huron borderlands are a treasure trove of history and culture. Native people have lived in this area since the glacial waters subsided and the Great Lakes took on their present configuration — about twenty-five hundred years ago. The rich fisheries ...

Acknowledgments

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p. viii

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Introduction

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pp. xv-xxxvii

To anyone familiar with European imperialism since 1492, the above passage could be referring to virtually any part of the world except Europe. In point of fact, the author, Peter Salway, is describing the Roman invasions of Britain from 43 ad until the early fifth century when they finally left the island ...

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1. A Historical Accounting of the Anishnaabeg People

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pp. 1-15

When Columbus landed in North America, one of his first acts was to rename and “take possession” of the islands he “discovered.” In doing so, he also “took possession” of the people who lived on those islands, and in the process “bestowed” upon them the collective term of “Indians,” a misnomer that persists ...

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2. The French Period: The 1600s to 1763

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pp. 17-35

The introduction of the European fur trade eventually brought a profound change to the Anishnaabeg way of life, although there is no doubt that trading was indigenous to tribal life long before the Europeans arrived in the upper Great Lakes in the early 1600s. However, the historical record shows that the French and other Europeans were concerned with more than just obtaining fur ...

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3. The British Period : 1763 to 1795

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pp. 37-51

Pontiac’s 1763 siege of Detroit was broken on November 5, but the reprovisioning of the fort at Detroit did nothing to bring the partisans of Pontiac into the British fold, and the area was far from solidly in British hands. The Native people were of the mind that since the French had ceded their territory in North America, they (the Native people) were sole proprietors of the land ...

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4. The United States and the Division of the Anishnaabeg Homeland

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pp. 53-82

The British did agree to abandon their posts with “convenient speed” in the 1783 Treaty of Paris that ended the Revolutionary War, but “convenient speed” turned out to be more a figure of speech, because the British took a decidedly long time to leave. They were still in possession of their posts in the upper Great Lakes in 1795 when the Americans were pressing their case ...

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5. Anishnaabeg Treaty-Making and the Removal Period

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pp. 83-130

The Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768 and the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 were the first meaningful threats to the integrity of the Native homelands in the Great Lakes area generally, but over time, virtually all of the Native lands in the area were ceded. This chapter examines the land cessions through which the Anishnaabeg lost control over most of the Lake Huron borderlands. ...

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6. Twenty-First-Century Conditions, and Conclusion

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pp. 131-150

Anishnaabeg oral tradition attributes the creation of the rapids at Sault Ste. Marie to a man who, wishing to trap beaver, built a great stone dam across the St. Mary’s River and went off in search of his prey. While absent, he had his wife guard the dam. But it so happened that Manaboozho was chasing a deer in the area, and the deer jumped into the big pond behind the man’s dam. ...

Appendix

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pp. 151-160

Notes

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pp. 161-176

Bibliography

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pp. 177-192

Index

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pp. 193-203