Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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Illustrations

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p. ix

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Prologue

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pp. xi-xv

On November 28, 1989, President George H. W. Bush signed into law the National Museum of the American Indian Act (NMAI Act), which included provisions requiring the repatriation of human remains and funerary objects in the possession or control of the Smithsonian Institution. Almost a year later, on November...

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1. Tallbull’s Quest

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pp. 1-27

Tallbull was also a member of the Dog Soldiers, one of the ancient Cheyenne warrior societies entrusted with the protection of the two sacred covenants given to the Cheyenne people by the Supreme Deity. Mahuts, the four sacred arrows, were given to the Cheyenne at Bear Butte in South Dakota. Is’siwun, the sacred...

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2. The Green Boxes

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pp. 28-41

Legislation to establish the National Museum of the American Indian had its inception with the response to a question at the February 20, 1987, hearing on the Native American Cultural Preservation Act. Smithsonian Secretary Robert Adams’s testimony to the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs regarding what...

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3. The Political Dynamics of Public Awareness

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pp. 42-55

Senators Melcher’s and Inouye’s efforts during the 100th Congress had focused on the repatriation of collections of Native American human remains and other objects excavated long ago and then gathered in museum collections. It was only a matter of time before Congress began to address ongoing excavations...

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4. The Way of the Coyote

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pp. 56-78

Although consensus on the Indian museum proposal was not achieved before the expiration of the 100th Congress, negotiations between the Smithsonian and the Heye Foundation of New York continued. Representative Byron Dorgan, apparently frustrated with the retreat on repatriation in other bills...

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5. Two Practices, No Policy

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pp. 79-112

On November 21, 1989, seven days before President George H. W. Bush signed the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) Act into law, Senator Daniel Inouye offered another repatriation bill. In introducing S. 1980, Inouye began by lauding the Smithsonian Institution for taking a courageous step...

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6. A Defining Moment

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pp. 113-138

On July 10, 1990, Representative Morris Udall (see figure 6.1) introduced a new bill as a compromise among the various bills already under consideration by the House. The first section of H.R. 5237 provided the short title for the new bill—the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act—testament...

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7. The Biggest Thing We Have Ever Done

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pp. 139-172

The number of repatriation bills ostensibly under consideration when Congress reconvened after the August 1990 recess had grown from the single ill-fated effort introduced without a cosponsor by Montana Senator John Melcher in the waning days 99th Congress, to seven different measures sponsored by five...

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8. Legislative History in Interpretive Context

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pp. 173-212

President George H. W. Bush’s signature on the final page of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) Act and on the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) ended the opening stage of the legislative process covered in the first seven chapters of this book. Legal scholars...

Notes

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pp. 213-259

Index

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pp. 261-269

About the Author

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p. 270