Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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List of Illustrations

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p. xiii

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Acknowledgments

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p. xv

A work such as this is a group effort. I sincerely appreciate the hard work and dedication of each of the contributors to this volume. Many friends and colleagues helped in countless ways, both large and small. Thanks go to Brian Swann, who first proposed that I commit to this book and kept...

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Editor’s Introduction

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pp. 1-26

A wide variety of stories and songs—with such characters and plots as a pushy frog, a leatherback sea turtle, mice preparing for war, a weeping mountain, a talking tree, and a coyote that loses its eyes, among others—populate this book. The cultures of the Native Southwest possess a vibrant...

PART 1. LANGUAGE ISOLATES

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Seri

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pp. 29-30

The Seri-language essays were written and are presented here in the practical spelling system that has been in use, with some modifications, for about fifty years (see Marlett 2006). A description of the sounds is given in Marlett, Moreno Herrera, and Herrera Astorga (2005) and Marlett...

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1. Leatherback Sea Turtle—Xiica Cmotómanoj

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pp. 31-43

The Seri people—or Comcaac [koŋˈkaːk], as they call themselves— live on the central coast of Sonora, Mexico, along the Gulf of California, in an area that is part of the great Sonoran Desert. This has been their homeland for many centuries and perhaps millennia. See Bowen (1976, 1983) for an overview...

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2. Those Who Had Hast Quita as Their Birthplace

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pp. 44-53

Herrera’s essay presents for the first time to a non-Seri audience, so far as we know, information about a group of Seris who lived on the Baja California peninsula. Oral tradition among the Seris gives them two names: Hant Ihiini Comcaac, ‘Baja California Seris’ (Baja California...

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3. Twin Peaks—Hast Cacöla

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pp. 54-60

The largest of Mexico’s islands is located in the Gulf of California and is known to the outside world as Isla Tiburón (or Isla del Tiburón, Tiburón Island). Its name in the Seri language is Tahejöc [taˈɁɛxʷk], and that is the name used in the English translation of Francisco Xavier Moreno...

Zuni

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p. 61

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4. Two Zuni Coyote Tales

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pp. 63-86

For several decades, Stanley Newman’s concise description of Zuni grammar (Newman 1965) has served as the keystone upon which much recent work on the grammar of Zuni depends. The description was the product of Newman’s work primarily with Zuni speakers in Albuquerque...

PART 2. YUMAN LANGUAGE FAMILY

Quechan

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p. 89

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5. Coyote and Hen

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pp. 91-107

The Quechan people have traditionally lived along the lower part of the Colorado River. At one time Quechan territory extended from around Needles, California, to the Gulf of California (Forde 1931:88). Today, the Quechan Indian Nation occupies a portion of this territory along the east side...

Tipai

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p. 109

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6. Rabbit and Frog

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pp. 111-123

The story “Rabbit and Frog” is a Tipai, or Southern Kumeyaay, story from Baja California. It is told by Jon Meza Cuero, who learned it from his father in San José de la Zorra, a traditional Kumeyaay community of Baja. Meza Cuero is also a traditional singer of Wildcat songs, which are similar...

PART 3. NADÍNE (APACHEAN)

Navajo

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p. 127

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7. A Family Struggles: Excerpt from the Washington Matthews Version of the Navajo Mountain Chant

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pp. 129-149

An army surgeon whose nonjudgmental curiosity prompted him to investigate traditional Navajo healing practices, Matthews served at Fort Wingate on the eastern edge of the Navajo Reservation from 1880 to 1884 and again from 1890 to 1894. Between those two duty tours he served...

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8. John Watchman’s “Ma’ii dóó Gólízhii"

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pp. 150-172

In the summer of 1929 at Crystal, New Mexico, a community that sits in the shadow of the Chuska Mountains on the Navajo Nation, John Watchman told Edward Sapir the narrative that is the focus of this chapter. Watchman told Sapir a Coyote story as well as a number of other narratives...

Chiricahua Apache

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p. 173

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9. Samuel E. Kenoi’s Portraits of White Men

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pp. 175-193

Let me begin with an understatement. Native Americans have had a long and complicated history with “white people.” While mainstream American society has created any number of stereotypes about Native Americans through popular media and the like (see Deloria 1998; Meek...

White Mountain Apache

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p. 195

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10. Ndah Ch’ii’n

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pp. 197-239

“Ndah Ch’ii’n” is a story about a man who gambles with a dangerous being named Ndah Ch’ii’n and becomes indebted to him. The man, who is never named, journeys to Ndah Ch’ii’n’s home in the underworld to work off his debt. Ndah Ch’ii’n then sets him a series of seemingly impossible tasks...

PART 4. UTO-AZTECAN LANGUAGE FAMILY

Chemehuevi

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p. 243

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11. How Coyote and Dog Exchanged Noses: A Chemehuevi Tale

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pp. 245-256

The story presented here is one of the traditional Chemehuevi narratives that center on the most prominent character of Chemehuevi mythology—Sünawavi, Mythic Coyote. Coyote stories are quite common in the Native cultures of the Southwest, and they are much more than adventures...

Hopi

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p. 257

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12. Two Hopi Poems

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pp. 259-264

As fluent and/or active and/or native speakers of Native American languages become fewer in the twenty-first century, the problems of translation will grow in several dimensions. One, of course, relates to the resources available. The basic necessities are: a good grammatical description as devoid...

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13. The Field Mouse Story

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pp. 265-274

The following narrative is recounted in H. R. Voth’s Traditions of the Hopi (1905:229, no. 90, told by Qöyawayma). The Hopi text here is from the H. R. Voth papers at Bethel College in North Newton, Kansas. Voth compiled the Traditions by dictating partial English translations to a stenographer...

Yaqui

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p. 275

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14. Wo’i Wakila into Taavu: Skinny Coyote and Bunny

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pp. 277-298

The Hiaki (Yaqui) people are indigenous to the Rio Yaqui valley of Sonora, Mexico, and also live in several communities in southern Arizona, in the United States (e.g. Old Pascua, New Pascua, and Barrio Libre in the Tucson area and Guadalupe in the Phoenix area). Elders in the eight traditional...

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15. The Talking Tree: A Yoeme Beginning

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pp. 299-307

This central, emblematic Yoeme story (Giddings 1959:25–27; Painter 1986:4–11; Evers and Molina 1987:35–39) does not appear in any previous collection of Yoeme narratives in Yoeme (Johnson 1962). The present text came from Encinas, Romero and Valenzuela (1998:1–14); it is not clear...

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16. Cowgirl Jane: A Yoeme Cow and Monte Mediation

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pp. 308-314

In addition to the Deer songs that are a familiar and important part of Yoeme ritual and literature (Evers and Molina 1987), there is also a body of Yoeme “popular” songs. One of these is presented here. It was recorded in January 1961 by Tom Stanford and transcribed by John Dedrick. The present...

Tarahumara

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p. 315

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17. Rarámuri Stories from Before: Raráumuri historias de antes

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pp. 317-336

Deep in Copper Canyon in northern Mexico live the indigenous people of the Lower Tarahumara, a regional adaptation of the Rarámuri culture. The Lower Tarahumara region has conformed to different historical processes that have left a print on the ethnic configuration of the...

Pima-Maricopa

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p. 337

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18. The Life History of a Pima-Maricopa Woman and Her Speech to Pope John Paul II

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pp. 339-355

This chapter presents the life history of Alfretta Antone of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community. Her life history foregrounds a speech she was selected to deliver to Pope John Paul II during his visit to Phoenix, Arizona, in 1987. Both her reminiscences of her life and the speech...

Altar Valley Piman

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p. 357

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19. Eighteenth-Century Jesuit and Franciscan Platicas: Lexical “Choice” and Textual Architecture

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pp. 359-377

Jesuits who translated ecclesiastical materials into Piman and other Sonoran and Californian languages were influenced by the Native variety into which the material was being translated. This influence includes lexical choice but also stylistic features. After considering the former, I will turn...

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20. The Lord’s Prayer

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pp. 378-388

As O’odham speakers, we are interested in our past. Our language is central to our culture and identity. One way of looking at our past is to see how our language has changed over time. In order to explore the similarities within O’odham it is important to look at texts rather than single words. The only...

Tohono O’odham

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p. 389

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21. The Albino Saguaro: Contemporary Storytelling in Tohono O’odham

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pp. 391-405

The Tohono O’odham language is experiencing the rapid decline in number of speakers seen in other indigenous cultures, especially those of the American Southwest. In fact, the American Southwest has been identified in recent publications (e.g., Harrison 2007; National Geographic...

PART 5. KIOWA-TANOAN LANGUAGE FAMILY

Kiowa

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p. 409

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22. How Thébôl Got His Name

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pp. 411-417

Thébôl, the subject of this story, was a well-known Kiowa. He was about seventy years old when James Mooney met him in the late 1890s. T’ébodal, as Mooney wrote his name, was also a fairly successful Indian doctor and a warrior of some note, as charming and charismatic as any person of importance...

Picuris Pueblo

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p. 419

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23. Picuris Traditional Tales: Stories from the Hidden Valley

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pp. 421-461

In 1928 the Smithsonian Institution published a report that included texts and songs from Picuris, a small Pueblo Indian community in northern New Mexico. The texts were collected by John Peabody Harrington, a linguist and ethnologist who worked for the Smithsonian Institution’s Bureau...

Arizona Tewa

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p. 463

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24. A Yaaniwe Song: Celebrating Prosperity and Identity

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pp. 465-470

In situations of cultural borrowing between Native American cultural groups, it is rarely the case that we know precisely when and how the borrowing took place. But for Arizona Tewa Yaaniwe songs the anthropological record details all of this and even provides the identity of the individual who was...

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25. ’Avayun (and Coyote) Story: A Retranslation of “Coyote’s False Tail”

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pp. 471-484

Though the great majority of Tewa-language narratives that Elsie Clews Parsons collected, translated, and published in Tewa Tales in 1926 were provided by linguistic consultants from the Rio Grande Tewa–speaking pueblos of San Juan, Santa Clara, and San Ildefonso, Parsons did include eighteen...

Ohkay Owingeh (formerly San Juan Pueblo)

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p. 485

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26. Four Springtime Tewa Songs

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pp. 487-523

Clouds, rain, flowers, and birds are only a few of the beautiful images presented in song texts of the Tewa-speaking people of Ohkay Owingeh (formerly San Juan) Pueblo. This quiet Indian village, home to about five thousand residents, lies east of the Rio Grande near its confluence with the...

PART 6. SOUTHWEST TRANSLATION,MYTH, AND HISTORY

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27. Translating the Verbal Art of the Native American Southwest

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pp. 527-556

One of the biggest stories in translation news since the turn of the century has been the publication of two new renderings of Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace into English. Richard Pevear, cotranslator of the text based on what was apparently the final version of this sweeping account of Russian...

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28. Edenism: On the Star Husband–less Southwest

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pp. 557-597

This essay discusses some comparative methods for understanding the mythologies of peoples within a cultural region. The first part of the essay revisits studies done some time ago by Stith Thompson and Claude Lévi-Strauss on the Star Husband story, a story that is told nearly everywhere...

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29. Yukiwmat Navoti’at: The Tradition of Yukiwma

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pp. 598-646

Distinguishing among narrative genres in Native American oral tradition has been a persistent problem since publication of the first “autobiography” in 1833 by Sauk leader Black Hawk (Jackson 1955) and the first collection of Ojibwa “tales and legends” by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft in...

Contributors

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pp. 647-663

Index

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pp. 665-681

Further Reading

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p. 682