Cover

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Contents

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Preface

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pp. ix-xiii

The lives of foundation officers do not often come to public attention. Wealthy persons who endow large philanthropic trusts are commonly lionized; those who distribute that largesse are not. Though foundations have set in motion many societal advances during the last hundred years, relatively little is known about the executives whose vision and beliefs ...

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1. Frontier Outposts, Singular Village, Prestigious University

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pp. 1-28

Polk County, Nebraska, in the mid-nineteenth century was not a hospitable place. In winter, the temperature could plunge to 20 degrees below zero. Severe blizzards were frequent, some lasting almost a week. Exposed humans struggled to keep their eyes from freezing shut, and unsheltered animals could suffocate under heavy, driven snow. Summer ...

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2. Learning Philanthropy: From Apprentice to Master Craftsman

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pp. 29-62

At the time Embree arrived at 61 Broadway, the Rockefeller Foundation was very much a work in progress. It shared office space with the General Education Board (GEB), a Rockefeller-endowed trust established to aid education without restrictions of race, sex, or creed. A decade younger than the GEB, the foundation had a far broader purpose: “to promote ...

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3. Someone to Keep Julius Rosenwald Straight

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pp. 63-94

At the beginning of 1927, Edwin Embree’s situation at the Rockefeller Foundation bore all the outward marks of success. Under the reorganization then under way, he had returned to the central administration as second only to the foundation’s president. After almost a decade with the foundation, he was its longest-serving official. Twice during that ...

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4. Southern Initiatives, Asset Collapse, Transformation

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pp. 95-132

Sixteen months after arriving in Chicago, Embree could exult that he was having “the time of my life.”1 As president of the Julius Rosenwald Fund, he for the first time was fully responsible for an organization, its shape, direction, and accomplishments. He had from the founder a broad mandate to move the fund forward, and he was assured of ...

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5. Character to Cope with Disagreement

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pp. 133-181

Chicago in the summer of 1933 had much to arouse public enthusiasm. The end of May had seen the opening of the world’s fair, titled “A Century of Progress Exposition,” celebrating the city’s hundredth birthday. The opening had generated great excitement, and emotions were even higher by Independence Day. On July 6, the first major league baseball All-Star ...

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6. Toward “Full Democracy”

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pp. 182-212

From the difficult mid-thirties discussions within the board, the Rosenwald Fund emerged with a focus narrowed to three main areas: rural education, African American welfare and race relations, and medical services. Embree had recommended these areas of interest early in 1936, but before the year was out medical services was dropped as a fund ac-...

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7. On the National Stage

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pp. 213-248

The global conflict of the 1940s propelled Embree more directly into the national political arena. He had foreseen, at least dimly, some of the societal consequences of the war, particularly the perils and possibilities it posed for relations between white citizens and the nation’s minori­ties. Increased migration of rural blacks from the South to the cities of ...

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8 Celebrations, Proclamations, Tributes

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pp. 249-279

In accordance with the founder’s specification, the Rosenwald Fund was required to expend all its assets and go out of business no later than 1957, twenty-five years after Julius Rosenwald’s death. The great damage done to those assets by the Depression, however, was never fully repaired. Shares worth almost $200 early in 1929, after falling to under ...

Notes

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pp. 281-334

Bibliography

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pp. 335-344

Index

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pp. 345-363