Cover

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Title Page

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Copyright Page

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Contents

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Introduction

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pp. 1-19

In the early summer of 1974, freshman senator Joseph Biden (D-Del.) accepted an invitation from the Gordy Estates Civic Association at the Krebs School in Newport, Delaware, located just south of Wilmington, to discuss the issue of busing with his constituents. Two years earlier, school desegregation...

PART I. CHALLENGING JIM CROW

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1. "There Is a movement on Foot"

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pp. 23-58

The origins of all social phenomena are debatable, but the roots of the movement to desegregate public education in Delaware can be traced, in a real sense, to the letter of inquiry of one Ira S. Edwards, who sought admission to the University of Delaware in 1939. Edwards, a resident of Wilmington and...

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2. "He wouldn't Help me Get a Jim Crow Bus"

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pp. 59-98

African Americans in Delaware and certain allies had long worked to address institutionalized deficiencies and secure greater educational opportunities for their children in primary and secondary education. Against the background of sustained institutional neglect of public education in general—and...

PART II. ELIMINATING JIM CROW

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3. "The Delaware method of Solving Things"

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pp. 101-135

Fresh from the Supreme Court victory on May 17, 1954, the NAACP outlined its approach to subsequent challenges to the constitutionally suspect sectional imaginary of de jure segregation the following weekend in Atlanta. The organization proceeded—in ways it would increasingly and forcefully...

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4. "If we must and Are to Have Integration"

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pp. 136-169

With the Supreme Court’s call for re-argument on remedy, the issue of school desegregation returned to the national stage and the parties to the case engaged in debates as to the pace of the desegregation of public schools. In briefs and oral arguments, the NAACP team took the position that the Court...

PART III. EXTENDING BROWN'S MANDATE

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5. "The other Side of the Milliken Coin"

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pp. 173-212

The challenge to the problem of racial segregation in public education in the 1970s began, in a sense, with one unlikely activist: Marilyn Harwick, a white substitute teacher with two daughters enrolled in David W. Harlan Elementary School and P. S. du Pont High School. The city of Wilmington was experiencing...

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6. "For and Against School Busing"

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pp. 213-240

On March 20, 1972, twenty-nine-year-old attorney and New Castle County councilman Joseph Biden formally announced his candidacy for the U.S. Senate. Before an enthusiastic and overflowing crowd in the du Barry Room of the Hotel DuPont in Wilmington, he introduced his family and outlined...

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Epilogue

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pp. 241-249

The fiftieth anniversary of Brown—and the lower court cases that served as its evidentiary foundation—prompted a celebration of sorts in Delaware. In the period surrounding the anniversary, various groups sponsored a number of commemorative events intended—as part of the creation of a public...

Abbreviations

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pp. 251-252

Notes

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pp. 253-304

Index

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pp. 305-314

Acknowledgments

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pp. 315-316