In this interdisciplinary collection of essays, Martin and Nicholas gather work by emerging and leading voices in the study of Native American religion to reassess the complex history of and relationship between North American indigenous people and Christian missionaries from contact well into the nineteenth century. The experiences of Native converts to Christianity have often been viewed with suspicion—as somehow less representative of the Native American experience or as mere victims—and relegated to the background of Native studies. In contrast, this volume represents and seeks to advance a paradigm shift that, heralded by a renewal of interest in both Native American religion and native sovereignty, encourages scholars to take seriously the varied ways that Native Americans negotiated and shaped the contact experience, including conversion to Christianity. The essays here explore a variety of post-contact identities, including indigenous Christians, mission friendly non-Christians, and ex-Christians, shedding light on the complex and shifting world of Native-white cultural and religious exchange through which Natives redefined their spiritual and religious identities. Rather than questioning the authenticity of Native Christian experiences, these scholars argue that the varied and dynamic ways indigenous peoples handled and initiated change with regard to missions, missionaries, and Christianity shatter the pervasive stereotype of Native Americans as culturally static and ill-equipped to adapt to the currents of modernization.