Front Cover

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Title Page

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Copyright

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Contents

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Illustrations

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pp. vii-viii

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Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

The word companion originates from Latin, cum panis, meaning ‘with bread’. This Latin expression is a reference to the person or persons with whom we share our bread. My time living and studying in Brazil and the United States has brought me some memorable and loving...

Part One: Overview

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1: Introduction

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pp. 3-14

From the mid-sixteenth century to the end of the nineteenth century millions of Africans were forcibly transported to Brazil. Although exact numbers are not known, estimates of 4 to 4.5 million slaves have been suggested by scholars...

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2: Historical Overview

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pp. 15-51

The origins of Calunga can be attributed to a series of historical factors. Of particular importance are the fifteenth-century Portuguese explorations and the subsequent establishment of the Portuguese Empire. Another key factor is the Atlantic slave trade...

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3: Linguistic Overview

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pp. 52-100

This chapter examines the linguistic context in which Calunga evolved by reviewing linguistic literature on: (1) contact between Portuguese and African languages, (2) African languages spoken in Brazil...

Part Two: Linguistic Description

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4: Sociolinguistic and Sociohistorical Considerations of Calunga

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pp. 103-122

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Minas Gerais became heavily populated with slaves of African descent (African- and Brazilian-born), constituting up to 80 percent of the state’s total population during those centuries...

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5: The Calunga Lexicon

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pp. 123-165

If one asks a Calunga speaker, what is Calunga?, the speaker will typically provide a series of lexical items and translate them into Portuguese rather than explain it as a “foreign language.” That is, the key component of Calunga is its lexicon...

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6: Calunga Grammar

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pp. 166-198

This chapter aims to describe and analyze the grammar of Calunga. The linguistic corpus utilized is qualitative and drawn from recorded interviews and empirical observations. In addition to the grammatical description of Calunga, the chapter offers comparative...

Appendix

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pp. 199-238

Abbreviations

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pp. 239-240

Notes

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pp. 241-248

References

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pp. 249-264

Index

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pp. 265-278