Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Title Page, Copyright

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. vii-viii

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-x

So many people have helped along the way I can’t possibly name them all. First, I thank my comrades in wetlands and frogs, especially Mark Gernes, but also many people who worked with us at the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency: wetland field assistants Joel Chirhart, Cade Steffenson, and Kyle Thompson; ...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-6

I knelt on the ground in my oversize rubber waders and peered into the metal pan. Its water danced with small creatures we’d just netted from the pristine-looking river below. A variety of immature insects swam about: armored dragonflies and pebble-cased caddis flies, dark-bodied beetles and bugs. ...

read more

1. The Call

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 7-27

Her voice quavered over the phone as she described a hellish scene: frogs with stumps of legs; frogs missing a leg; frogs with twisted joints; some with extra legs that couldn’t move. A frog with one eye. “Half of these frogs have something wrong. They look really pathetic.” She paused. “We need help.” ...

read more

2. The Frog Champion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 28-41

In October of 1995, not long after the discovery of deformed frogs, eighty-four-year-old state representative Willard Munger organized a hearing about deformed frogs and wetlands issues. He invited the school students, their teacher, and me to speak to a mixed assemblage of legislators and citizens. ...

read more

3. Learning Curves

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 42-67

One thing I knew: to find clues to what caused the deformities, we had to focus on the frogs themselves and the places where they spent their time throughout the year. The most likely scene of the crime lay within the ponds, where developing eggs would be exposed to pollutants or other agents in the water. ...

read more

4. Wading in and Listening

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 68-76

Before coming to the MPCA, I observed first-hand the vulnerability of wetland organisms to damaging pollutants when I participated with EPA scientists in a research project. Their goal was to field-test the impact of organophosphorus insecticides on the biota of natural wetlands. ...

read more

5. The Peril Widens

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 77-93

With renewed hope, Mark and I made plans for surveying frogs and sampling ponds. In 1995 we had logged hundreds of misshapen frogs in a few different locations in the state. But what if Granite Falls repeated itself and no deformed frogs appeared in 1996? ...

read more

6. Science in the Public Eye

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 94-108

The Monday following the EPA’s meeting in late September 1996, we conducted a third survey of the frogs at the Ney Pond. This time a troubling 32 out of 70, or 47 percent of the frogs were deformed, much worse than earlier in September, when we logged 8 percent abnormal, or in July when only one frog out of 124 we collected had a small defect. ...

read more

7. Government to the Rescue?

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 109-136

After taking a week off for our wedding in early November of 1996, I returned to work with unrealistic hopes that the swirl of media requests and other communications might have simmered down. Instead, I was greeted by a flood of nine hundred e-mails and phone messages. ...

read more

8. The Quest

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 137-148

“Hey Judy, any chance your field crew could collect some fertilized frog eggs for us from one of your study sites?” asked EPA researcher Joe Tietge during a break at the amphibian meeting in Madison in the spring of 1997. He wanted to expose eggs to some chemicals and to ultraviolet light to see if deformities would develop, he explained. ...

read more

9. Imperiled Frogs

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 149-171

Death and deformity again stalked Dave Hoppe’s intensive study site in north central Minnesota in the summer of 1997. Frogs were floating, listless, and dying. Dozens of small fish and a couple of painted turtles had died. Young frogs couldn’t swim or hop. Three-quarters of the mink frogs had severe and in some cases multiple deformities. ...

read more

10. Bureaucratic Strangulation

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 172-187

After the reaction to September’s press conference and the media coverage cooled down, I hoped work would go more smoothly. But I’d had this thought before. Dorothy took a couple of months off to finish her master’s thesis, and, as we expected, she quit her job as fieldwork coordinator when she returned. ...

read more

11. The Wrecking Ball

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 188-199

The MPCA’s new reorganization plan, optimistically called “Goal 21” for the new century, swung into action with a massive and work-stopping internal move in 1999. During this time, the agency received a bomb threat, preceded earlier that summer by an anonymous message from someone who had threatened to “start shooting employees one by one,” ...

read more

Epilogue: How Are the Frogs? An Update

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 200-224

More than a decade has passed since the MPCA halted its research on the frogs in 2001 and after my retirement in 2002 to compose the next chapter of my life teaching, writing, and spending time with family. Since then, major environmental disasters, such as the catastrophic BP oil spill in the Gulf ...

References

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 225-240

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 241-243

Back Cover

pdf iconDownload PDF