Cover

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Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Abbreviations

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pp. vii-viii

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Gregory of Nazianzus: Past, Present, and Future

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pp. ix-xiii

The past forty years have seen nothing short of a revolution in the study of St. Gregory of Nazianzus. Long honored with the title “the Theologian,” conferred by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, Gregory is now widely recognized as the veritable architect of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, a source of great importance for the historiography of late antique and early medieval ...

Part I. Theology

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1. Systematic Theology in Homeric Dress: Poemata arcana

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pp. 3-12

In the American academic world today, it is customary to distinguish between “systematic” theology and theology in its historical or scriptural forms. Whatever one thinks of the validity of such distinctions—and from a Christian perspective, at least, they raise serious questions—one must recognize that the project of forming one’s religious understanding of God, the world, and the human journey ...

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2. Illumined from All Sides by the Trinity: Neglected Themes in Gregory’s Trinitarian Theology

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pp. 13-30

In recent studies Michel Barnes and Lewis Ayres have drawn attention to a broad consensus among fourth-century defenders of Nicaea, in particular the Cappadocians and Augustine. They have highlighted how these theologians argue for the full divinity of the Son and the Holy Spirit and their equality with the Father on the grounds that the activity of the three persons in the created world is one, and hence their nature is one. ...

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3. Gregory of Nazianzus and Biblical Interpretation

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pp. 31-48

Although sought after as a teacher of Scripture in his own day, Gregory of Nazianzus does not conform to our expectations of patristic exegesis and has attracted relatively little sustained attention as a biblical interpreter.1 We have no formal hermeneutical treatise, no commentaries, and no proper exegetical homilies extant from him.2 In what sense, then, if any might Gregory merit attention ...

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4. Deciphering a Recipe for Biblical Preaching in Oration 14

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pp. 49-66

Everyone who studies the works of Gregory Nazianzen in this day eventually passes with no little amount of pleasure through the scholarship of Fred Norris. I have worked my way more than once through his helpful commentary on Gregory’s Theological Orations, through his insightful connection between Wittgenstein and Gregory’s own use of language, through his critique ...

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5. Gregory’s Baptismal Theology and the Alexandrian Tradition

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pp. 67-83

Fred Norris has made major contributions to understanding the Trinitarian theology of Gregory of Nazianzus, and in tribute to him I want to give further consideration to Gregory’s baptismal theology, for which he is a principal fourth-century source.1 Gregory of Nazianzus shares much in common with his fellow Cappadocians Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, but for this chapter I want to note his commonalities with ...

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6. Gregory of Nazianzus, Montanism, and the Holy Spirit

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pp. 84-102

As is well known, Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 329–390) arrived in Constantinople in September 379 to commence a theological preaching and teaching mission. His mission had as its aim the advancement of Nicene orthodoxy in the city and the establishment of a viable unity among the members of the then current theological factions, who strongly disagreed about various ...

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7. Gregory Nazianzen and Philosophy, with Remarks on Gregory’s Cynicism

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pp. 103-122

It is well known that for the Cappadocian fathers—and especially for Gregory of Nazianzen—the term “philosophy” signifies “the Christian life” or “the contemplation of Christian truth.”1 When referring to the contemplation of Christian truth, philosophein and theologein are almost equivalent in Gregory’s works, though philosophein occurs with greater frequency. Yet, in addition ...

Part 2. History and Autobiography

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8. Historiography as Devotion: Poemata de seipso

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pp. 125-142

It is difficult to distill Gregory of Nazianzus’ poetic project from his Poemata de seipso: the pieces are too disparate in form, style, and focus to allow generalization, and the grouping as a collection is a modern one, not Gregory’s own.1 Monks of St. Maur first collected the ninety-nine poems together in the eighteenth century, a grouping that Migne retained in his volume devoted ...

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9. The Stoning of Christ and Gregory of Nazianzus

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pp. 143-158

“Children, for my sake, ‘guard what has been entrusted to you’; remember my stoning! The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all! Amen!”1 With these words, Gregory of Nazianzus ends his Farewell to the Bishops, dramatically set in his departure from Constantinople in 381.2 Gregory ensures that people would remember his stoning from the Easter Vigil of 380 by referring ...

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10. Bishops Behaving Badly: Helladius Challenges Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa

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pp. 159-177

Scholars have generally overlooked the interpersonal exchanges in the lives of Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa, since they are tangential to the study of theological anthropology and the Trinity. Such are the “Helladius affairs,” the rousing stories of Bishop Helladius’ contentious behavior against Gregory of Nazianzus and Gregory of Nyssa.1 These mundane events not only give valuable biographical ...

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11. The Tax Man and the Theologian Gregory, Hellenius, and the Monks of Nazianzus

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pp. 178-195

Gregory Nazianzen’s poem “To Hellenius, an Exhortation Concerning the Monks,” one of the small group addressed “to others,” has rarely been examined as a whole.1 The purpose of this chapter is to attempt such an examination and to suggest that the work casts a sharper light than has been realized on Gregory’s position in local society in the early 370s. I shall also suggest, ...

Part 3. Legacy

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12. On the “Play” of Divine Providence in Gregory Nazianzen and Maximus the Confessor

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pp. 199-217

Maximus the Confessor’s Ambigua ad Joannem, addressed to Bishop John of Cyzicus (Anatolia), broaches perplexing passages in the writings of Gregory Nazianzen that Maximus clarifies in extensive expositions, often by giving Gregory’s words fresh nuances. The vulnerability of Gregory to misinterpretation raises the stakes all the more, as observable in Maximus’ vigorous attack on ...

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13. Gregory the Theologian, Constantine the Philosopher, and Byzantine Missions to the Slavs

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pp. 218-235

As a young pupil in Thessalonica, Constantine the Philosopher, better known as St. Cyril, apostle to the Slavs, drew the sign of the cross on his wall and penned this eulogy to his lifelong patron and mentor. Gregory Nazianzen’s influence in Byzantine literature is well attested,1 and the translation and importance of his writings in the Slavic world have also received attention.2 ...

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14. Emperors and Priests: Gregory’s Theodosius and the Macedonians

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pp. 236-251

Between 879 and 882 CE, emperor Basil I and his family were presented with an illustrated copy of Gregory of Nazianzus’ Orations. Produced in Constantinople, this copy “is arguably the most complex and internally sophisticated illustrated manuscript ever produced in Byzantium.”1 Known as Parisinus Graecus 510, it is also one of the most intensely discussed manuscripts, not ...

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15. St. Gregory the Theologian and Byzantine Theology

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pp. 252-266

In the Byzantine tradition, St. Gregory of Nazianzus was “the Theologian”; in later Byzantine tradition he appears together with St. Basil of Caesarea and St. John of Constantinople as one of the “ecumenical teachers,” celebrated together on January 30, each of whom has his epithet: St. Basil the “Great,” St. Gregory the “Theologian” and St. John the “Golden-mouthed” ...

Part 4. Epilogue

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16. St. Gregory the Comic

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pp. 269-276

It was the experience of hearing Fred Norris preach, in church, a verbatim exposition of one of St. Gregory’s homilies, that made me realize for the first time how funny he was—Gregory, that is. People laughed in all the right places, and accordingly were ready to be “touched to the heart” in all the right places, too, for laughter and weeping can indeed be gateways to the soul. ...

The Works of Frederick W. Norris (Excluding Reviews)

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pp. 277-283

General Bibliography

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pp. 285-304

Contributors

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pp. 305-307

General Index

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pp. 309-312

Index to the Works of Gregory of Nazianzus

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pp. 313-315

Index to Biblical Citations

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pp. 317-319