Soy, Functional Foods, Biotechnology, and Obesity
Publication Year: 2005
Published by: University of Illinois Press
Series: The Food Series
Table of Contents
Many of the insights in this book emerged from research projects by farsighted funding groups such as the National Soybean Research Lab (NSRL) and the Soy Foods Center at the University of Illinois, the Council for Agricultural Research (C-FAR), the Illinois-Missouri Biotechnology Alliance (IMBA), the Illinois Attorney General, and the Illinois Soybean Program...
Marketing is not simply a clever “Got Milk” advertising campaign, a fiftycent coupon on a soy burger, or a convenient combination pack of precut vegetables. In the context of nutrition, marketing is much broader. It focuses on all efforts to encourage and enable people to eat more nutritiously. Many people involved in marketing might call it education...
PART 1: SECRETS ABOUT FOOD AND PEOPLE
1. Nutrition Knowledge That Matters
Many people want to believe that nutritional knowledge is power. That is, they believe that if we can simply educate people so that they can pass a nutrition quiz, they will all eat better. Almost everyone knows that fruit is better for them than cookies, that a salad is better for them than french fries, and that broiled fish is better for them than a deep-fried pork chop. Despite this knowledge, cookie...
2. Classified World War II Food Secrets
How can we get people to eat better? Many programs and campaigns to change eating habits, such as the “Five-a-Day” fruit and vegetable campaign, have met with costly, disappointing short-term results. Most recently, the adoption of healthful or functional foods has been slow because consumers are wary to try unfamiliar, initially unappealing foods such as...
3. If It Sounds Good, It Tatsts Good
To what extent do labels influence our taste of a product? Can a label actually make us think a food tastes good or bad? Although this general issue of taste suggestibility is not often academically studied, it has a rich anecdotal history. Studies during World War II examined the feasibility of serving organ meats (such as brains, kidneys, tongue, and liver) as...
PART 2: TOOLS FOR TARGETING
4. Profiling the Perfect Consumer
At least some part of the population will adopt an unfamiliar but nutritious food simply because it’s more healthful, but a larger portion will do so only if the taste of this food is preferable to alternatives. To better understand the types of people who have adopted a healthful unfamiliar food, it could be beneficial to profile those who did so because they like...
5. Mental Maps That Lead to Consumer Insights
We know that people have different attitudes about food, but how are these attitudes influenced? Several factors, such as food preferences, beliefs, values, socioeconomic status, and knowledge of nutrition, influence the formation of food attitudes. Understanding why and how people choose the foods they do will help us develop a more targeted marketing communication...
6. Targeting Nutritional Gatekeepers
The biggest single driver of consumption is the availability of a particular food. In most households, what is eaten for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks is determined by what the primary grocery shopper—the food gatekeeper—has purchased. If a teenager wants to eat Pop-Tarts but they are not in the house, he or she will probably not eat Pop-Tarts. The teenager...
PART 3: THE HEALTH OF NATIONS
7. The De-marketing of Obesity
People want a variety of high-value, tasty foods that they can have in large quantities whenever they want. Years of evolution and learned behavior have led people away from eating foods that are less palatable and less convenient to obtain. This is one reason overeating at McDonald’s is so much easier to do than convincing children to eat broccoli. ...
8. Why Five-a-Day Programs Often Fail
“Eat five servings of fruits and vegetables a day.” Much research has been done on why some consumers follow this food guideline while others agree it is a good idea and then eat potato chips. Although much effort and money have been invested in programs such as the “Five-a-Day” program, there is no evidence that these programs are cost-effective, and many...
9. Winning the Biotechnology Battle
Functional foods and biotechnology often are wrongly perceived as interconnected in many consumers’ minds. New foods, enhanced with added nutritional characteristics, can be intimidating. Some consumers are afraid to try functional foods such as soy, fermented dairy products, and yogurt because they have preconceived notions about the risks involved...
10. Managing Consumer Reactions to Food Crises
Marketing nutrition is a process of encouraging people to make healthful choices that improve their well-being. What happens when contamination, terrorism, or disease is thought to threaten a part of the food supply? Some crises have influenced the recall, redesign, and communication efforts of individual companies (such as Tylenol, Perrier, Ford, Goodyear, and Shell). ...
PART 4: LABELING THAT ACTUALLY WORKS
11. Leveraging Food and Drug Administration Health Claims
“Reduce the risk of heart disease.” “Prevent osteoporosis.” Health claims such as these might influence our knowledge, but do they motivate us to change our behavior? When do health claims motivate us to eat better? Although effective food labeling and nutritional health claims can have an important impact on consumers, such efforts are not always successful. ...
12. Health Claims: When Less Equals More
Should we make health claims lengthy and complete or catchy and quick? A longer, more complete health claim is most accurate, but a shorter one can be more easily processed and more persuasive. The concerns over Food and Drug Administration (FDA) claims being accurate but misunderstood are well founded. Although the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act was...
PART FIVE: MARKETING NUTRITION
13. Introducing Unfamiliar Foods to Unfamiliar Lands
If we look at food consumption patterns, we see that they are greatly affected by cultural differences. How do we encourage people to alter their consumption patterns and consume an unfamiliar food that could meet a key nutritional need? When developing a marketing strategy around a functional food, it is important to consider the cultural context and perceptions...
14. Global Best Practices
Many programs and campaigns to change eating habits have met with costly, disappointing, short-lived results. Most recently, even the adoption of functional foods has been slow because consumers are hesitant to try unfamiliar, initially unappealing foods. The earlier chapters of this book have focused on the insights that have resulted from a stream of research...
Conclusion: Looking Backward and Speeding Forward
As the Introduction to this book emphasized, marketing nutrition is not simply a clever “Got Milk” ad, a fifty-cent coupon on a soy burger, or a convenient combination pack of precut carrots. In the context of nutrition, marketing is much broader because it focuses on all efforts to persuade, encourage, and enable people to eat more nutritiously. Call it education...
References and Suggested Readings