Citizenship and Those Who Leave
The Politics of Emigration and Expatriation
Publication Year: 2007
Published by: University of Illinois Press
Series: Studies of World Migrations
Table of Contents
Citizenship and Those Who Leave is the second volume in the “Studies in World Migrations” series, following Leo Lucassen’s Immigrant Threat. This volume was chosen for the series because it casts an eye to emigration and expatriation worldwide—from the Americas and Europe to India, China, and Israel. Like the emerging field...
Most of the chapters in this volume originated at a conference entitled “Citoyenneté et émigration,” held at the École des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales on December 7 and 8, 2001. The meeting brought together an interdisciplinary group of migration scholars to look at the other side of the migration...
Exit, like entry, has helped define citizenship over the last two centuries, yet little attention has been given to what could be called the politics of emigration. Most of the migration literature of the last few decades, as seen from the major countries of arrival, has been resolutely a literature of immigration. As immigration...
PART I. FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT
1. Leaving: A Comparative View
In the early stages of the French Revolution, the Constitution of 1791 promulgated the norm in liberal democratic societies that citizens were to be permitted to leave their homes in pursuit of better opportunities elsewhere. Although most of us have come to take this norm for granted, its prominent place in the...
2. The Exit Revolution
High on the litany of grievances broadcast by the Americans in their Declaration of Independence is the king’s egregious interference with their efforts to attract settlers: “He has endeavored to prevent the Population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new...
PART II. NATION BUILDING AND THE ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK
3. Emigration and Nation Building during the Mass Migrations from Europe
Is it possible for a country to imagine itself a “nation of emigrants” in the same way the United States has proclaimed itself a “nation of immigrants”? With as many as fifty-five million persons (a fifth of Europe’s population in 1800) leaving for North America (thirty-five million), South America (eight million), and other parts of the world between 1815 and 1939, and with a larger number moving...
4. The Liberal Italian State and Mass Emigration, 1860-1914
When emigration from the Italian peninsula became massive, an image of crowds of emigrants, abandoned to face the adversity and dangers of exile, began to appear in print, ranging from novels to polemic debates. The new liberal state was accused of grossly neglecting its migrant nationals. Whether humanist or nationalist...
5. The French State and Transoceanic Emigration
In the fall of 1835, the French minister of the interior heard for the first time of an emigration movement from the border département of Basses- Pyrénées to Uruguay. He was alerted almost simultaneously by the French consul in Montevideo and the local prefect in Pau, Leroy, that “a society had been formed in order to establish a French colony in Montevideo and its agents were recruiting peasants...
PART III. THE COSTS OF EMIGRATION
6. Emigration and the British State, ca. 1815-1925
Between the conclusion of one world war in 1815 and the start of another in 1914, approximately sixteen million people emigrated from the United Kingdom. During this extended period more migrants were recorded leaving the British Isles than any other European country.1 The greatest part of this emigrant stream was destined for the United States; in other words, the majority of emigrants not...
7. Holland beyond the Borders: Emigration and the Dutch State, 1850-1940
Emigration is largely considered a definitive departure of people to another state, especially to transatlantic immigration countries like the United States, Canada, Argentina, and Australia. Although we know that in reality many people only stayed temporarily,1 the implicit assumption is that emigrants left “far away and forever...
8. From Economics to Ethnicity and Back: Reflections on Emigration Control in Germany, 1800-2000
In the modern industrialized world of today, it has become difficult to imagine emigration control as a major political topic. As all industrial societies face pressing problems of unemployment in almost all professions, preventing people from going elsewhere is hardly an issue. What is an issue is how to decide who gets admission to...
PART IV. BORDERS AND LINKS
9. The United States Government and the Investigation of European Emigration in the Open Door Era
The United States, unlike the countries discussed elsewhere in this volume, has been a country of immigration throughout its history. Emigration and emigrants have therefore played a very minor role in the public consciousness and history of Americans during most of that period. Immigrants occupied the public debate, and...
10. Migration and National Consciousness: The Canadian Case
In 1900, census figures showed that 1,180,000 Canadians (Canada-born) resided in the United States—a number corresponding to 22 percent of the Dominion’s population. In that same year, foreign-born immigrants constituted 13 percent of Canada’s population. Despite yearly fluctuations, similar rates of out-migration...
11. Migration Policy and the Asymmetry of Power: The Mexican Case, 1900-2000
Mexico is a country of emigrants that does not fully recognize itself as such. The low national awareness of this reality has been due essentially to two factors: the proximity of the receiving country and the fact that emigration is unidirectional. Eighty-eight percent of Mexican emigrants are bound for a single destination—the...
PART V. NAMING EMIGRANTS
12. The "Overseas Chinese": The State and Emigration from the 1890s through the 1990s
Emigration was long prohibited in China. Up until the mid-nineteenth century, the attitudes of successive Chinese governments toward emigration corresponded to their attitudes on maritime trade with foreign countries. Before the advent of the Ming in 1368, there were no severe restrictions; this dynasty, more autocratic...
13. Tracing the Genesis of Brain Drain in India through State Policy and Civil Society
Brain drain, which implies emigration of the highly educated, skilled, and experienced—including students of higher learning—from relatively less developed to more developed countries, is a recent phenomenon, although migration (immigration and emigration) in general is much older.1 Emigration per se, it has been said,...
14. Israeli Emigration Policy
Israel was envisioned as a homeland for the world’s Jews in the 1890s, and brought into being in 1948, following the Holocaust. The movement for a modern Jewish state was conceived by a secular Jewish journalist named Theodore Herzl as he reported on a series of anti-Semitic incidents culminating in the Dreyfus Affair. Convinced...