Cover

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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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Preface

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pp. vii-viii

Contents

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pp. ix-x

List of Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xii

Aids for the Reader

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pp. xiii-xviii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-21

Near the end of the second decade of the seventh century, the Sasanian general known as Shahrwaraz, the “boar of the empire,” led an army into the Egyptian province of Augustamnica Prima, from Rhinokoloura to Pelusium and thence on to the fortress of Babylon, following a route well worn by invaders over the past millennium. ...

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Chapter 1. Land

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pp. 22-38

As we have seen, the Flavii Apiones were one of the most powerful families in the later Roman Empire, and it has been asserted that “the basis of the family wealth was their estate . . . in Oxyrhynchus.”1 Indeed, since at least Hardy’s The Large Estates of Byzantine Egypt,2 these Oxyrhynchite holdings have been regarded (and served) as the quintessential “great estate”; ...

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Chapter 2. Vineland

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pp. 39-61

To describe and quantify viticulture on the Apion estate, we must first, of course, identify it in the sources. At the outset, I should note that no complete listing of Apion vineyards from any period of the estate’s history has been published; this information must be painstakingly culled from the dossier. ...

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Chapter 3. Labor in the Vineyard

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pp. 62-89

“[In Egypt] wage labour was widely used, in particular but not only on the Apion estates,” Wickham has declared.1 If he is correct, we would expect that direct exploitation was most pronounced in those agricultural sectors that required the greatest investments of resources and manpower, including (even especially) viticulture.2 ...

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Chapter 4. The Flow of Wine through the Estate

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pp. 90-145

In chapter 1, I demonstrated that viticulture is pivotal for any analysis of the Apion estate’s posture toward the market. In chapter 3, I noted that one might argue that developments in the estate’s relationships with labor were a reaction to demands from the market. ...

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Chapter 5. Assessing Estate Viticulture

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pp. 146-155

The preceding four chapters have laid the groundwork for an assessment of the role of viticulture on the Apion estate. They have demonstrated that viticulture was the only agricultural sector through which the estate could have engaged directly with the market in a meaningful fashion. ...

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Conclusion

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pp. 156-160

By virtue of its extensive documentation, the Apion estate has long been at the center of arguments concerning the economy and society of late antique Egypt; indeed, it is one of the few economic entities that has managed to transcend local—in this case, we might say “papyrological”—history, ...

Appendixes

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pp. 161-198

Literature Cited

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pp. 199-216

Index Locorum

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pp. 217-222

Subject Index

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pp. 223-229