Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. vii-ix

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Preface

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pp. xi-xiii

This essay is not a contribution to philosophy. It is merely the exposition of certain ideas that attempts to deal with the theory of knowledge ought to take into full account. Traditional logic and epistemology have produced, by and large, merely disquisitions on...

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Some Preliminary Observations Concerning Praxeology Instead of an Introduction

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pp. 1-8

It must be left to metaphysical speculation to deal with the problems whether this proposition can be borne out from the point of view of a superhuman intelligence and furthermore whether it is possible for a human mind...

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1. The Human Mind

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pp. 9-29

On the earth man occupies a peculiar position that distinguishes him from and elevates him above all other entities constituting our planet. While all the other things, animate or inanimate, behave according to regular patterns, man alone seems...

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2. The Activistic Basis of Knowledge

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pp. 30-46

The characteristic feature of man is action. Man aims at changing some of the conditions of his environment in order to substitute a state of affairs that suits him better for another state that suits him less. All manifestations of life and behavior with regard to which man differs from all other beings and...

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3. Necessity and Volition

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pp. 47-55

Negation, the notion of the absence or nonexistence of something or of the denial of a proposition, is conceivable to the human mind. But the notion of an absolute negation of everything, the representation of an absolute nothing, is beyond man’s comprehension. So is the notion of the emergence of somethin...

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4. Certainty and Uncertainty

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pp. 56-65

Laboratory experiments and observation of external phenomena enable the natural sciences to proceed with measurement and the quantification of knowledge. Referring to this fact, one used to style these sciences as the exact sciences...

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5. On Some Popular Errors Concerning the Scope and Method of Economics

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pp. 66-93

The popular ideas concerning the methods the economists employ or ought to employ in the pursuit of their studies are fashioned by the belief that the methods of the natural sciences are also adequate for the study of human action. This fable is supported by the usage that mistakes economic history for economics...

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6. Further Implications of the Neglect of Economic Thinking

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pp. 94-103

Naturalism plans to deal with the problems of human action in the way zoology deals with all other living beings. Behaviorism wants to obliterate what distinguishes human action from the behavior of animals. In these schemes...

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7. The Epistemological Roots of Monism

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pp. 104-112

Man’s world view is, as has been pointed out, deterministic. Man cannot conceive the idea of an absolute nothing or of some thing originating out of nothing and invading the universe from without. The human concept of the universe...

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8. Positivism and the Crisis of Western Civilization

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pp. 113-120

The way in which the philosophy of logical positivism depicts the universe is defective. It comprehends only what can be recognized by the experimental methods of the natural sciences. It ignores the human mind as well as human action. It is usual to justify...

Index

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pp. 121-124

Publication Information

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pp. 144-144