Frontmatter

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

title page

pdf iconDownload PDF
 

Contents

pdf iconDownload PDF

p. vii

read more

Foreword

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. ix-xii

Racial and ethnic relations in America are evolving continuously, shaped by policy shifts, economic circumstances and demographic trends. For much of the post–World War II period, the defining racial paradigm was biracial as America gradually worked through the residual effects of slavery and post- Reconstruction...

read more

Acknowledgments

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. xiii-xiv

This book is the result of so many discussions, encounters, interviews, and field trips conducted over more than fifteen years that it would be impossible to mention all the people in Oakland who generously contributed their time, thoughts, advice or documentation...

read more

Introduction

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 1-8

In their book Protest Is Not Enough1 (1984), Browning, Marshall, and Tabb argued that minority incorporation in the political life of cities was based on biracial coalitions formed by the electoral mobilization of African Americans combined with the backing of progressive...

read more

1 Racial Diversity A Central Political Issue

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 9-36

The shift of a black and white biracial model toward a multicultural model is a new phase in the long history of racial politics in the United States, a history closely related to the country’s immigration policies and economic conditions. Two questions constantly...

read more

2 Blacks Come to Power

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 37-63

Like many other American industrial cities, Oakland had to face severe economic, social, and political problems in the mid- 1960s. As Watts burned in 1965, many experts were worried about the city’s situation, considering it the next potential candidate for urban...

read more

3 Economic DevelopmentsThe Shrinking of the Pie

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 64-89

Oakland’s difficulties in overcoming painful economic changes contributed to giving successive black administrations in the city a reputation for incompetence that tarnished the image of the city and eventually fed black voter disillusion. In addition to the rapid deindustrialization of the 1970s, California was struck full force with the...

read more

4 Diversity and Perceptions

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 90-123

In May 1996, in a move reflecting the minority population’s heightened desire for recognition, the Oakland City Council decided to rename one of its major streets, East 14th Street, International Boulevard. This artery, running from Lake Merritt downtown to the neighboring city of San Leandro, became a symbol of the city’s ethnic...

read more

5 The Redistribution of Power in Oakland

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 124-172

Holding the promise of more effective defense of minority interests, political representation, and political participation, was at the heart of black demands in the 1960s and 1970s. The conquest of power was not, of course, an end in itself but represented the possibility of finally creating the conditions for access to greater social and racial...

read more

6 Education A Means of Integration?

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 173-208

The school issue is the focus of most of the debates swirling around multiculturalism. Most ethnic and racial groups see education as the source of all evil and of every hope. As the transmitter of culture, education is thought to have the virtue of moving minds toward ethnic pluralism and greater tolerance for difference. It is seen as a site...

read more

7 Race, Crime, and Justice

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 209-250

Every introductory approach to the city of Oakland begins with its crime rate, simply because when any resident of the Bay Area, finding out you’re going to Oakland, wants to know why, tells you to be very careful and not to go alone, and gives you a list of the neighborhoods to be avoided at all costs. Perception of crime is at least...

read more

Conclusion

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 251-262

Since this book was first published in 2007, Oakland has suffered a number of severe blows. The subprime crisis devastated the most fragile old neighborhoods while ruining the hopes of recent investors in the brand- new developments of the previously booming housing market in downtown and West Oakland. The revenues...

Notes

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 263-280

Index

pdf iconDownload PDF

pp. 281-295