Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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List of Illustrations

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p. ix

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Preface

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p. xi

I have enjoyed thinking about the state, researching state building, and writing this book, in ways I did not anticipate. I encountered the idea of the state first while doing my Middle Eastern studies. I was told then that “in the beginning was the state” and all other things—politics...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xiii-xiv

In writing this book I have benefited from numerous discussions and comments from colleagues, friends, and family. I am greatly indebted to all of them for helping me sharpen my argumentation and weed out factual mistakes: George Abi-Saab, Sadik al-Azm, Mona al-Ghobashy...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-14

State making is more than sovereign authority over territory and it is broader than regime type. State making is complex and best captured in terms of the three core functions of any modern state: security, welfare, and representation. State making requires legitimacy of rulers and...

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1. Understanding State Making

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pp. 15-30

Making states work is a complex and often arduous task. The requirements are best captured in terms of the three core functions of any modern state: security, welfare, and representation. These three substantial components of state making are sometimes mutually reinforcing...

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2. Iraq: From Rentier State to Failed State

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pp. 31-57

Iraq has been one of the most war-prone states in the Middle East. It was engaged in the 1948 War with Israel, the 1967 Six-Day War (June War) with Israel, the 1973 Yom Kippur War with Israel, the 1980–88 Iran-Iraq War, the First and Second Gulf Wars (1990–91 and 2003), and...

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3. Jordan: Rentierism and State Survival

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pp. 58-74

Jordan, like Iraq, has been engaged in war making since its independence. It was involved in the 1948 War with Israel, the 1967 Six-Day War (June War) with Israel, the military campaign against the PLO and Syria in September 1970, and the 1973 Yom Kippur War with...

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4. The Gulf States: From Tribal Sheikhdoms to Sustainable States

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pp. 75-99

The United Arab Emirates and the other small Gulf states (Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar) stand in contrast to Iraq and Jordan: no Gulf state has been engaged in war making since independence. The history of state making within the United Arab Emirates shows that oil revenues...

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5. State Failure and Peace Building

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pp. 100-116

Patterns of state making in the Middle East stand in contrast to the European process of state making, which was primarily the outcome of the state’s need to obtain financial resources for use in coercion, violence, and war making. In Europe it became politically necessary...

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Epilogue

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pp. 117-119

However, these developments have nothing anomalous about them. They must be understood in view of the unfinished state-building processes these states have undergone since their independence. These states all had repressive political power but lacked the tools...

Notes

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pp. 121-130

Bibliography

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pp. 131-148

Index

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pp. 149-155