Cover

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Frontmatter

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Contents

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p. vii

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Editor’s Preface

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pp. ix-xiv

The University of Hawai‘i Press has long been noted for its scholarly publications in, and commitment to, the field of Asian Studies. The present volume is the sixth in a series initiated by the press in keeping with that commitment, Dimensions of Asian Spirituality. ...

Dynastic Periods in Chinese History

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p. xv

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Preface

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p. xvii

My interest in the moral and spiritual doctrine of self-cultivation arose from watching the classical Confucian texts come alive in the hands of college students. I wondered in those courses why the Neo-Confucian academy pedagogy I had adopted, such as personal journals, seemed to fit so appropriately with the way the classical texts themselves were composed. ...

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Acknowledgments

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p. xix

More than ten years of seminar students at Denison University convinced me this book should be written. I thank the students in each seminar for their rich interaction with the texts and with one another. ...

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Introduction

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pp. xxi-xxxii

This book tells the story of the moral and spiritual practice of Neo-Confucian self-cultivation in Chinese history. The heart of the program of self-cultivation will be revealed by opening up its essential texts and analyzing how they should be studied. ...

Part I Neo-Confucianism, 1000–1400

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p. 1

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Chapter 1 Song Dynasty Neo-Confucianism

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pp. 3-19

The intellectual movement known as Neo-Confucianism, begun in the eleventh century, developed one of the most sophisticated formulations of self-cultivation in the history of humanistic education. After looking at its historical background, I will treat the three components that made its doctrines new: ...

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Chapter 2 Neo-Confucian Education

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pp. 20-34

Of the three components defining Neo-Confucianism (see chapter 1), self-cultivation and the reshaped canon of classics were more lasting than the metaphysical and epistemological content of the philosophical doctrine. ...

Part II The Great Learning and the Eight Steps to Personal Cultivation

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p. 35

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Chapter 3 The First Five Steps of Personal Cultivation

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pp. 37-60

The Confucian Eight Steps are embedded in a remarkably short, one-page classic, the Great Learning. In the 1100s CE this ancient text was singled out from among the ritual texts compiled during the Han dynasty as the cardinal work with which to begin one’s adult education in Confucian ethics. ...

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Chapter 4 The Three Steps of Social Development

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pp. 61-72

The complete text of the Great Learning has the following paragraph at its conclusion: “From the Son of Heaven [the emperor] down to the common people, they all as one take cultivating the person to be the root. How could it be that the root be disturbed and yet have the branch remain undisturbed? ...

Part III Self-Cultivation Upgrades: The Fifteenth Century through the Nineteenth Century

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p. 73

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Chapter 5 Reforms in Neo-Confucianism: The Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries

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pp. 75-86

Chinese rule of China was restored when the Ming dynasty conquered the Mongols in 1368. In 1415 the Ming leadership published by imperial decree its own edition of Neo-Confucian interpretations of the Four Books and Five Classics, which became the standard for the Ming civil service examinations. ...

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Chapter 6 The Nineteenth-Century Synthesis in Confucian Learning

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pp. 87-108

In the early nineteenth century, several of the new Qing dynasty acad-emies followed the eighteenth-century emphasis on both new textual criticism, called evidential research, and ritual in their institutional precepts and in their curricula. ...

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Legacies

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pp. 109-112

The late nineteenth-century synthesis of the Confucian ethical tradition was the tip of an iceberg, the base of which extended to before 500 BCE, when Confucius first began teaching. The nineteenth-century revision had Neo-Confucian content at its core but relied on revised texts whose wording had met the test of philological scrutiny. ...

Appendix Chronology of Works and Thinkers with the Sequence for Reading the Four Books Indicated

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pp. 113-114

Notes

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pp. 115-118

Further Readings

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pp. 119-124

Index

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pp. 125-132